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Salvador Dalí

(1904—1989) Spanish painter

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Albert Skira

Albert Skira  

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(1904–73)Swiss publisher, born in Geneva. After working in a bank and as an entertainments organizer in luxury hotels, he set up business as a bookseller and in 1931 began his publishing career with ...
Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti  

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(1901–1966)Swiss sculptor, painter, and draughtsman, who is best known for the thin elongated figures that he produced after World War II.Son of the postimpressionist painter Giovanni Giacometti (d. ...
André Breton

André Breton  

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(1896–1966)French poet.Breton was born in Tinchebray, Orne. His early involvement with the dadaists revealed itself in such works as Mont de piété (1919); in the same year he co-founded the ...
Australian art

Australian art  

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The art of European origin in Australia can be traced back to 1788, when a British penal colony was established at Sydney Cove. The first non-Aboriginal examples of graphic art ...
automatism

automatism  

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A method of painting or drawing in which conscious control is suppressed, allowing the subconscious to take over. André Breton wrote in the Surrealist manifesto of 1924 of ‘pure psychic automatism’, ...
Christian Dior

Christian Dior  

(1905–1957)French couturier whose ‘New Look’ did much to rejuvenate the French fashion industry immediately after World War II. He was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in recognition of his ...
Elsa Schiaparelli

Elsa Schiaparelli  

(1896–1973)French couturière, born in Italy, noted for her innovative use of nylon and other synthetic fabrics.Schiaparelli was born in Rome into an illustrious academic family. She worked initially ...
Federico García Lorca

Federico García Lorca  

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(1898–1936)Spanish poet and dramatist, regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Spanish literary life in the twentieth century.Born at Fuente Vaqueros, Granada, the son of a wealthy ...
George Herriman

George Herriman  

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(1880–1944)American cartoonist, born in New Orleans. He first contributed cartoons to newspapers in about 1903. In 1913 he began drawing the Krazy Kat cartoon strip. Taking place in the imaginary ...
Georges Bataille

Georges Bataille  

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(1897–1962)Bleak French essayist and thinker. Bataille's unsystematic work can be characterized as a kind of followon from Nietzsche, concentrating upon the absence of God, the disappearance of the ...
Georges Mathieu

Georges Mathieu  

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(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, 27 Jan. 1921).French painter. In the 1950s he gained an international reputation as one of the leading exponents of expressive abstraction. This was partly because of a flair for ...
Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum

Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum  

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In 1841 Daniel Wadsworth, a local patron of the arts, first proposed establishing an art museum for the city of Hartford, Connecticut. The funds were raised by subscription, and on ...
James Gleeson

James Gleeson  

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(1915–2008)Australian painter and writer. He was born in Sydney and studied at East Sydney Technical College, 1934–6. Gleeson was Australia's most committed exponent of Surrealism, both as a painter ...
kitsch

kitsch  

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Art, objects, or design considered to be in poor taste because of excessive garishness or sentimentality, but sometimes appreciated in an ironic or knowing way. The word comes (in the 1920s) from ...
Léonor Fini

Léonor Fini  

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(1908–96).Argentinian/Italian painter. Fini was born in Buenos Aires but raised in Trieste. She had little formal education but travelled widely in Europe where her somewhat dramatic taste led to ...
Light art

Light art  

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A general term for works of art in which artificial light (usually electric) plays an important role. Although artists had experimented with artificial light since the 18th century, it was not until ...
Luis Buñuel

Luis Buñuel  

(1900–1983)Spanish-born film director who settled in Mexico.Born in Calanda, Buñuel was educated by Jesuits and at the University of Madrid. He also attended the Académie du Cinéma, Paris. His first ...
Magic Realism

Magic Realism  

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A style of painting popular in Europe and the USA between the 1920s and 1940s, with some followers in the 1950s, it occupied a position somewhere between Surrealism and Photorealism—photographic ...
Max Ernst

Max Ernst  

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(1891–1976)German-born painter, who became a French citizen in 1958. He was a leading member of the dada and surrealist movements and developed the technique of frottage.Under parental pressure, ...
Max Klinger

Max Klinger  

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(b Leipzig, 18 Feb. 1857; d Grossjena, nr. Naumburg, 5 July 1920).German painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He studied in Karlsruhe and Berlin, then, after brief periods in Brussels, Berlin ...

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