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Cynics

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Antisthenes

Antisthenes  

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(c.445–c.360 bc)A devoted follower of Socrates, but also considered (e.g. by Diogenes Laertius) to be an important influence on the first famous Cynic, Diogenes of Sinope. He shared much of Socrates' ...
autarky

autarky  

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Self-sufficiency in economic terms. A country is said to be autarkic if it is closed to international trade. Similarly, individual agents are said to be in autarkic equilibrium when they are ...
Bion

Bion  

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Of Borysthenes (Olbia) (c. 335–c. 245 bc), popular philosopher. His own account of his early life (Diogenes Laertius 4. 46–7) is problematic. His disreputable parents (an ex-prostitute and a freedman ...
Cercidas of Megalopolis

Cercidas of Megalopolis  

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(fl. 225 bc),statesman, lawgiver, and poet. He negotiated c.226 with Aratus (2) of Sicyon and Antigonus (3) Doson to secure Macedonian support for the Achaean Confederacy against Cleomenes (2) ...
Crantor

Crantor  

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Of Soli in Cilicia (c. 335–275 bc), philosopher of the early Academy, and the first Platonic commentator. He studied under Xenocrates (1), and cohabited with Arcesilaus (1), whom he had ...
Crates

Crates  

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Of Thebes (c.368/365–288/285 bc), Cynic philosopher and poet. Having gone to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he maintained ...
Crates of Thebes

Crates of Thebes  

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(c.365–285 bc)Greek Cynic, and the principal pupil of Diogenes of Sinope. He led a wandering life devoted to poverty, yet is represented as universally respected and beloved: people wrote welcomes to ...
Demetrius (19)

Demetrius (19)  

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The Cynic lived in Rome under Gaius (1), Nero, and Vespasian and was friendly with the Stoic philosopher L. Annaeus Seneca (2). He was probably exiled to Greece under Nero ...
diatribe

diatribe  

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Term (derived from Gk. word meaning ‘spending’ (of time) ) given by modern scholars to works of Greek or Roman popular philosophy and generally implying the following: that they are direct ...
Dio Cocceianus

Dio Cocceianus  

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Later called Chrysostom (c.ad 40/50—after 110), Greek orator and popular philosopher. Born of wealthy family in Prusa in Bithynia, Dio began a career as a rhetorician at Rome, but soon fell under the ...
Dio of Prusa

Dio of Prusa  

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(c. ad 40/50–after 110),Greek orator and popular philosopher. Born of wealthy family in Prusa (mod. Bursa, NW Turkey) in Bithynia, Dio began a career as a rhetorician at Rome ...
Diogenes

Diogenes  

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(c. 400–c. 325 bc),Greek philosopher. The most famous of the Cynic school, he lived ascetically in Athens (according to legend, he lived in a tub) and was accordingly named Kuōn (‘the dog’), from ...
Hipparchia

Hipparchia  

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Philosophy
The wife of Crates the Cynic, whom she had chosen to marry in spite of the poverty and unconventionality of the life he offered her. She was a source of speculation because, since the Cynics insisted ...
Horace

Horace  

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(65–8bc),Roman poet of the Augustan period. A notable satirist and literary critic, he is best known for his Odes, much imitated by later ages, especially by the poets of 17th-century England.
Iambulus

Iambulus  

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(3rd cent. bc?),Hellenistic author of a utopian travel narrative, now lost, a summary of which is preserved by Diodorus (3) Siculus (2. 55–60). Nothing is known about him except ...
Meleager

Meleager  

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(fl. 100 bc),Greek poet and philosopher from Gadara in Syria; lived in Tyre and retired to Cos in old age. His autobiographical poems claim that he spoke Greek, Syrian, and Phoenician. His chief ...
Menedemus

Menedemus  

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Cynic philosopher of the 3rd cent. bc, from western Asia Minor, first a pupil of Colotes the Epicurean, later of Echecles the Cynic, both of Lampsacus. He is best known from Colotes' polemic against ...
Menippean satire

Menippean satire  

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Literature
A form of intellectually humorous work characterized by miscellaneous contents, displays of curious erudition, and comical discussions on philosophical topics. The name comes from the Greek Cynic ...
Menippus

Menippus  

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Of Gadara (Syria), influential Cynic writer, probably of first half of 3rd cent. bc. An untrustworthy Life (Diog. Laert. 6. 99–101) makes him a pupil of Metrocles and associates him with Boeotian ...
Oenomaus

Oenomaus  

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Of Gadara (fl. c.ad 120), Cynic; seemingly the pagan philosopher ‘Abnimos’ of the Talmud, so perhaps a Hellenized Jew (see Hellenism). He wrote: ‘Exposure of the Charlatans’ (or ‘Against the ...

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