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cybernetics

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artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence  

The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between ...
autopoiesis

autopoiesis  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Self creation or self organization. The term was introduced by the evolutionary biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela in their groundbreaking book, Autopoiesis and Cognition: The ...
bionics

bionics  

n. the science of mechanical or electronic systems that function in the same way as, or have characteristics of, living systems. Compare cybernetics. —bionic adj.
Charles Bell

Charles Bell  

(1774–1842)Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh in November 1774 and died at Hallow Park, near Worcester on 28 April 1842. He received his early training in the ‘Arts of ...
closed-loop control

closed-loop control  

In cybernetics, a control process in which a system's output is returned to its input as feedback, this being characteristic of controlled processing and all homeostatic processes. Compare open-loop ...
communication theory

communication theory  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The study of communication systems through mathematical models of their operation. It is broadly divided into information theory (the entropy formulation of sources and channels) and coding theory ...
computational neuroscience

computational neuroscience  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A discipline that combines methods and concepts from computer science and neuroscience to achieve a better understanding of brain and cognitive processes, computational neuroscience seeks to explain ...
cyborg

cyborg  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A hybrid being: half human, half machine (a contraction of ‘cybernetic organism’). The term was first coined in 1960 by the Austrian-American space scientist Manfred Clynes (b.1925), though such ...
debugging

debugging  

The identification and removal of localized implementation errors — or bugs — from a program or system. By contrast, testing seeks to establish whether bugs exist but does not isolate or remove them. ...
deviance amplification

deviance amplification  

Introduced by Leslie Wilkins in his book Social Deviance (1967), the concept suggests that a small initial deviation may spiral into ever-increasing significance through processes of labelling and ...
feedback

feedback  

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Overview Page
The process by which knowledge acquired from past experiences informs and alters actors' choices when they encounter similar situations. It is a central concept of cybernetics and information theory.
feedback and feedforward

feedback and feedforward  

When we move to catch a ball, we must interpret our view of the ball's movement to estimate its future trajectory. Our attempt to catch the ball incorporates this anticipation ...
Gregory Bateson

Gregory Bateson  

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(1904 –1980)A scholar of enormous range who made significant contributions to anthropology, psychology, and zoology. Bateson was born in England and studied natural history before turning to ...
heuristic

heuristic  

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Denoting a method of solving a problem for which no algorithm exists. It involves trial and error, as in iteration.
homeostasis

homeostasis  

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n. the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external ...
information flow

information flow  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The movement, control, and direction of data or messages within systems. See asymmetrical relationships; cybernetics; dependency theory; diffusion; disclosure; downward communication; gatekeepers; ...
interface

interface  

The zone of interaction between two systems or processes. Estuaries are interfaces between fluvial and marine systems (Bate et al. (2002) Water SA 28, 3).
Karl Deutsch

Karl Deutsch  

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(1912 –1992)Widely regarded as the founder of the cybernetic study of politics—especially the study of patterns of communication and control in international and intranational political systems (see ...
linkage

linkage  

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1 The interdependency of domestic and international politics. In studies of international relations, such as Robert D. Putnam's 1998 article ‘Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two‐Level ...
Luria on reductionism

Luria on reductionism  

For a very long time reductionism remained the generally accepted philosophical aim of the natural sciences as well as of psychology. It was supposed that the basic goal of science ...

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