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cybernetics

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artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence  

The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between ...
autopoiesis

autopoiesis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Self creation or self organization. The term was introduced by the evolutionary biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela in their groundbreaking book, Autopoiesis and Cognition: The ...
bionics

bionics  

n. the science of mechanical or electronic systems that function in the same way as, or have characteristics of, living systems. Compare cybernetics. —bionic adj.
Charles Bell

Charles Bell  

(1774–1842)Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh in November 1774 and died at Hallow Park, near Worcester on 28 April 1842. He received his early training in the ‘Arts of ...
closed-loop control

closed-loop control  

In cybernetics, a control process in which a system's output is returned to its input as feedback, this being characteristic of controlled processing and all homeostatic processes. Compare open-loop ...
communication theory

communication theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The study of communication systems through mathematical models of their operation. It is broadly divided into information theory (the entropy formulation of sources and channels) and coding theory ...
computational neuroscience

computational neuroscience  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A discipline that combines methods and concepts from computer science and neuroscience to achieve a better understanding of brain and cognitive processes, computational neuroscience seeks to explain ...
cybernetics

cybernetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,042 words

One of the basic disciplines in modern natural sciences and epistemology, cybernetics has provided some of the most powerful conceptual

cybernetics

cybernetics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
726 words

is the science of control. Its name, appropriately suggested by the mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), is derived from

cybernetics

cybernetics   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
66 words

Study of communication and control systems in animals, organizations and machines. It makes analogies between the brain and nervous system,

cybernetics

cybernetics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
107 words

The study of artificial or natural systems which store information and use feedback mechanisms to guide and control their behaviour.

cybernetics, history of

cybernetics, history of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,808 words
Illustration(s):
2

The word ‘cybernetics’ was introduced by Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), the distinguished mathematician. It was the title of a

cyborg

cyborg  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A hybrid being: half human, half machine (a contraction of ‘cybernetic organism’). The term was first coined in 1960 by the Austrian-American space scientist Manfred Clynes (b.1925), though such ...
debugging

debugging  

The identification and removal of localized implementation errors — or bugs — from a program or system. By contrast, testing seeks to establish whether bugs exist but does not isolate or remove them. ...
deviance amplification

deviance amplification  

Introduced by Leslie Wilkins in his book Social Deviance (1967), the concept suggests that a small initial deviation may spiral into ever-increasing significance through processes of labelling and ...
feedback

feedback  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process by which knowledge acquired from past experiences informs and alters actors' choices when they encounter similar situations. It is a central concept of cybernetics and information theory.
feedback and feedforward

feedback and feedforward  

When we move to catch a ball, we must interpret our view of the ball's movement to estimate its future trajectory. Our attempt to catch the ball incorporates this anticipation ...
Gregory Bateson

Gregory Bateson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1904 –1980)A scholar of enormous range who made significant contributions to anthropology, psychology, and zoology. Bateson was born in England and studied natural history before turning to ...
heuristic

heuristic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Denoting a method of solving a problem for which no algorithm exists. It involves trial and error, as in iteration.
homeostasis

homeostasis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
n. the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external ...

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