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Akkadian

Akkadian  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and ...
Akkadian Period

Akkadian Period  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]A cultural grouping named after an archaeologically unlocated site in the northern part of Sumer (possibly Babylon) that became the capital city of the Akkadian state founded by Sargon in c.2370 ...
alphabet

alphabet  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1. A particular sequential arrangement of a set of letters or other graphic symbols used to write a language in which these graphemes are used to represent the basic speech sounds or phonemes.2. A ...
Anatolian languages

Anatolian languages  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In the course of this century new evidence has emerged for a family of closely related languages attested in Anatolia (Turkey) from the 16th cent. bc and indirectly known two ...
Asia Minor

Asia Minor  

The term ‘Asia Minor’ denotes the westernmost part of the Asian continent, equivalent to modern Turkey between the Aegean and the Euphrates. The west and south coastal fringes were part of the ...
Belshazzar

Belshazzar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Incorrectly asserted in Dan. 5: 2 to be the son of Nebuchadnezzar and last king of Babylon. Cuneiform inscriptions found at Ur, however, show that he was the son of Nabonidus of Babylon (556–539bce) ...
books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman  

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Overview Page
Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c.3000 bc. While the ...
clay

clay  

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Overview Page
An inorganic constituent of soils consisting chiefly of clay minerals (mainly hydrous silicates of aluminium) in the form of particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter. See also flocculation.
decipherment

decipherment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The deciphering of obscure or obliterated parts of MSS or documents is rarely a simple process, and sometimes relies upon subjective conjecture (aided, however, by familiarity with handwriting, ...
Ebla

Ebla  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Archaeological site in Syria excavated in 1974–5. Many thousands of cuneiform texts were discovered written in a language which resembles Hebrew. They give important information about the Near East ...
Elam

Elam  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A country east of the lower Tigris. Elam is first mentioned in the OT in Gen. 14 where the king is one of a coalition, but it comes frequently into the history of the 8th and 7th cents. bce when its ...
Elamite

Elamite  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The second language of the trilingual inscriptions of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia, Elamite was deciphered in the 1840s, after G. F. Grotefend in 1802 had read and identified ...
Hattuša

Hattuša  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Capital city of the Hittites, c. 1650–1200 bc, near the modern village of Boğazköy (Boğazkale), 150 km. (93 mi.) east of Ankara in Turkey. The site has been under excavation ...
Henry Rawlinson

Henry Rawlinson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
(1810–1895), was born in Oxfordshire, England. He was appointed an officer cadet in the East India Company in 1827, and soon demonstrated a remarkable ability at languages, mastering five Eastern ...
Hittite

Hittite  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The Hittite language was spoken in central Anatolia (Asia Minor) during the 2nd millennium BCE in the Hittite kingdom and empire, which flourished ca. 1600–1200. The texts, in an adapted ...
Hittites

Hittites  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A member of an ancient people of Asia Minor who gained control of central Anatolia c. 1800–1200 bc. The Hittite empire reached its zenith under the totalitarian rule of Suppiluliuma I (c.1380 bc), ...
Hurrian and Urartian

Hurrian and Urartian  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Two closely related languages written in the cuneiform script were spoken in ancient times by people of the northeastern Zagros-Taurus corner of the “hilly flanks” of Mesopotamia. Although the ...
magus/magi

magus/magi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Only Herodotus calls the Magi a Median tribe. In the pre‐Hellenistic Greek tradition they are reciters of theogonies, explainers of dreams, royal educators and advisers. Magi are experts in the oral ...
Old Persian

Old Persian  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(abbr. OP), an Indo‐European language of western Iran (first millennium bc). Its writing is limited to royal inscriptions. The syllabic script has only 44 signs. The oldest extant and largest ...
pictograph

pictograph  

[De]1 A single character within a picture‐writing system such as hieroglyphics or cuneiform.2 A symbol or other marking painted on rock. See rock art.

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