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Absalon of Lund

Absalon of Lund  

(1128–1201)Educated in Paris, he became bishop of Roskilde (1158), then archbishop of Lund, Denmark (1178). He participated in the conquest and conversion of pagans (especially of Rügen), had great ...
Alfonso of Valladolid

Alfonso of Valladolid  

(c.1270–1340)A Jewish doctor of Burgos, qualified in 1295, Alfonso of Valladolid (also called Abner of Burgos or Alfonso of Burgos), made desperate by the living conditions of the Jews ...
Angela of Foligno

Angela of Foligno  

(c.1248–1309)The greatest Italian mystic of the 14th c., born probably at Foligno. There is little sure information on Angela's life. It has been conjectured from the Memorial, a sort ...
antijudaism

antijudaism  

Religious hostility towards Jews developed throughout the Middle Ages, taking different forms in different times and places. A distinction must be made between the official attitude of the Church and ...
Antony, St, of Padua

Antony, St, of Padua  

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Religion
(1188/95–1231), Franciscan friar. When he was 15 he joined the Augustinian Canons. He was deeply moved when the relics of some Franciscans killed in Morocco were brought to Coimbra in 1220; he ...
apostasy

apostasy  

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Religion
The abandonment of Christianity. Until 1983 the term was used in the RC Church also of public defection from the RC Church and of desertion by a professed religious who had taken perpetual vows.
Aragon

Aragon  

An autonomous region of NE Spain, bounded on the north by the Pyrenees and on the east by Catalonia and Valencia; capital, Saragossa. Formerly an independent kingdom, which was conquered in the 5th ...
Armenian literature

Armenian literature  

Armenian literature begins with the invention of an individual script by Mesrop Mas̆tocʼ (c.360–439). Although familiar with Greek and Syriac, Armenian church leaders needed a written form of ...
Augustinianism

Augustinianism  

St Augustine of Hippo was indisputably the greatest authority after the Bible in the history of Christian thought in the western MA. Indeed, his influence was omnipresent in all areas ...
Balts

Balts  

The Balts, who reached the banks of the Baltic around 500 bc, are among the oldest Indo-European peoples. From the time of the departure of the Goths, Pomeranians and Pruthenians ...
Benedict XII

Benedict XII  

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Religion
(d. 1342), Pope from 1334. Jacques Fournier was the third of the Avignon Popes. A Cistercian monk and abbot, as Pope he inaugurated several ecclesiastical reforms. He fought the rapacity of the ...
Bet Din

Bet Din  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘house of judgement’).Jewish court of law. Traditionally the establishment of the bet din as an institution is ascribed to Ezra. In Israel, the bet din is the rabbinic ...
Boris and Gleb

Boris and Gleb  

(d. 1015),martyrs. Sons of Vladimir by Anne of Constantinople, these two princes were killed at the instigation of their elder half-brother, Svyatopolk, whose aim was to ‘exterminate all his brothers ...
Boris I

Boris I  

(Βώγωρις), Bulgarian khan (852–89); died 2 May 907; commemorated in Orthodox calendars on 2 May. Byz. sources commonly use his baptismal name Michael. Soon after his accession Boris contemplated ...
Bulgars

Bulgars  

[CP]Originally Asiatic nomads who inhabited the shores of the Black Sea at the end of the 5th century ad but after ad 679 they crossed the Danube and founded a state in the old province of Moesia.
Catholic Kings

Catholic Kings  

Isabella, queen of Castile from 1474 to 1504, and her husband Ferdinand, king of Aragon from 1479 to 1516, each enjoyed a long reign that allowed them to pacify and ...
chosen People

chosen People  

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Religion
Those selected by God for a special relationship with him, especially the people of Israel, the Jews.
Christianity

Christianity  

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Religion
The religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices. It originated among the Jewish followers of Jesus of Nazareth, who believed that he was the promised ...
Christopher

Christopher  

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Religion
Male forename.St Christopher a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr, adopted as the patron saint of travellers, since it is said that he once carried Christ in the form of a child across a river; ...
circumcision

circumcision  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Though circumcision had long been in use as a religious rite among the Jews, it was abandoned at an early date by nearly the whole Church. In St Paul's Epistles ‘the circumcision’ is used ...

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