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annealing

annealing  

1 In connectionism (1) and parallel distributed processing, the use of random shocks to alter the states of units in a network of connected units until they are all responding as consistently as ...
artificial grammar learning

artificial grammar learning  

A grammar is a way of specifying how elements should be ordered. One sort of grammar is a finite state grammar, as illustrated in Fig. A14. It contains a finite ...
artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence  

The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between ...
attractor networks

attractor networks  

Artificial neural networks (ANNs), sometimes referred to as connectionist networks, are computational models based loosely on the neural architecture of the brain. Since the late 1980s, ANNs have ...
back-propagation algorithm

back-propagation algorithm  

In parallel distributed processing, a method of adjusting the output of a multi-layered neural network to produce a desired state for a given input, by first checking the input and computing the ...
behaviourism

behaviourism  

n. an approach to psychology postulating that only observable behaviour need be studied, thus denying any importance to unconscious processes. Behaviourists are concerned with the laws regulating the ...
cascade processing

cascade processing  

The implementation of later stages of information processing before the completion of earlier stages. For example, in retrieving the meaning of a printed word, a person may have to identify all the ...
catastrophe theory

catastrophe theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Mathematical theory pioneered by the French mathematician René Thom, treating abrupt changes or discontinuities.
cognitive science

cognitive science  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
The scientific study of processes of awareness, thought, and mental organization, often by means of computer modelling or artificial intelligence research.
computational neuroscience

computational neuroscience  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A discipline that combines methods and concepts from computer science and neuroscience to achieve a better understanding of brain and cognitive processes, computational neuroscience seeks to explain ...
computer

computer  

Any device capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined manner. The definition of the operations is called the program. An analog computer performs computations by manipulating ...
content-addressable memory

content-addressable memory  

In computer technology, a memory store that can be accessed by specifying the information that it contains, so that an instruction to find a particular item of information can be automatically ...
correlates of consciousness, computational

correlates of consciousness, computational  

The expression ‘computational correlate of consciousness’ was first used by Mathis and Mozer (1995), who, taking a computational approach to the problem of consciousness, asked ‘What conditions must ...
delta rule

delta rule  

In the back-propagation algorithm, adjustment of the weights of connections between units as a function of the discrepancies between actual output and target output as determined by a teacher unit. ...
distributed cognition

distributed cognition  

Information processing that is shared among several separate agents. The classic example, due to the US cognitive scientist Edwin Hutchins (born 1948), is that of a group of crew members cooperating ...
distributed network model

distributed network model  

A representation of anything by a pattern of activation over a number of connected units, characteristic of connectionism (1). Also called distributed representation.
error back-propagation

error back-propagation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A learning mechanism for connectionist networks, also known as the generalized delta rule (Rumelhart et al., 1986), error back‐propagation was developed as a solution to the problem that supervised ...
fringe

fringe  

The metaphoric use of ‘fringe’ denotes components of conscious experience occurring outside a core of focal, attentive, detailed, sensed, and/or articulated conscious content. The fringe is by nature ...
Gestalt theory

Gestalt theory  

A theory of perception and social understanding that emphasizes the degree to which individuals understand phenomena as wholes, greater than the sum of their individual parts. ‘Gestaltists argue for ...
gradient descent

gradient descent  

A numerical method for minimizing a function by invariably moving downwards along a steepest path from the current position. The method does not guarantee to reach a global minimum because, like a ...

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