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abbey

abbey  

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History
1 [De] A community of monks or nuns ruled by an abbot or abbess.2 [MC] A general term used to describe the buildings inhabited by a community of monks or nuns. See monastery.
Adhemar de Monteil

Adhemar de Monteil  

(d. 1098), Bp. of Le Puy from some time between 1080 and 1087. In 1095 Urban II summoned the Council of Clermont from Le Puy and made Adhémar his representative on the First Crusade. Adhémar's death ...
Alfonso VI of Castile

Alfonso VI of Castile  

(1040–1109)King from 1065 to 1109, firstly of León, then in 1072 of León, Castile and Galicia, which, separated by his father, he reunified, from 1077 Alfonso entitled himself “Imperator ...
Alfonso VII of Castile-León

Alfonso VII of Castile-León  

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(c.1104–1157)Son of Queen Urraca and Raymond of Burgundy, king of Castile-León 1126–1157. Emulating his grandfather Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII used the title ‘emperor of all Spain’, putting him at ...
Alger of Liège

Alger of Liège  

(c.1070 - before 1136)Monk and theologian. Formerly deacon and scholasticus at Liège, he was called to the service of the cathedral in 1101 by Bishop Otbert who made him ...
alpha – omega

alpha – omega  

The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha and omega are employed by the Son of Man in the Apocalypse three times (Rev 1, 18; 21, 6; 22 ...
Anacletus II

Anacletus II  

(antipope 14 Feb. 1130–25Jan. 1138)On the death of Honorius II (13 Feb. 1130), while a minority of cardinals led by the chancellor Aimeric rushed through the clandestine election of Innocent II, the ...
Aquitaine

Aquitaine  

A region and former province of SW France, on the Bay of Biscay, centred on Bordeaux. A province of the Roman Empire and a medieval duchy, it became an English possession by the marriage of Eleanor ...
Arras

Arras  

Evangelized in the late 4th c. by St Diogenes, Arras owes its rise to the settlement in 658, in the marshes of the Crinchon, of a monastic community placed under ...
art and architecture: Cluniac

art and architecture: Cluniac  

For three hundred years after its foundation in 909/910, the Burgundian abbey of Cluny was perhaps the most important monastic house in western Christendom, with, at its height, over 1,400 ...
Benedictine

Benedictine  

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A monk or nun of an order following the rule of St Benedict. From the original Benedictine foundations at Subiaco and Monte Cassino in Italy the number of monastic houses in Europe grew to many ...
Bernard of Cluny

Bernard of Cluny  

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(c.1100–c.1150), also called Bernard of Morlás or Morval. He was probably a Cluniac monk. His poem, De contemptu mundi, is the source of ‘Jerusalem the Golden’.
Bernard of Tiron

Bernard of Tiron  

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Religion
Founder and Abbot, 1046–1117.As with some other peripatetic founders, his biography is vague on dates and on the reasons for his changes of plan. Originally a monk of Saint-Cyprien (Poitiers), he ...
Berno of Cluny

Berno of Cluny  

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Abbot (d. 927).The founder of the largest and most influential abbey in western Europe is little known, partly because his five successors ruled for longer than he did and all were deservedly ...
Burgundy

Burgundy  

A region and former duchy of east central France, centred on Dijon. Under a series of strong dukes Burgundy achieved considerable independence from imperial control in the later Middle Ages, before ...
Callistus II

Callistus II  

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Religion
(d. 1124), Pope from 1119. He was a strong opponent of lay investiture; during his pontificate the Investiture Controversy was settled by the Concordat of Worms (1122). At the Lateran Council of 1123 ...
camera, Apostolic

camera, Apostolic  

Finance office of the papal court (curia), directed by the chamberlain, a cardinal late in the 12th century. In the 14th century a cardinals’ chamber separated, and the apostolic chamberlain ...
Capetians

Capetians  

Name of the dynasty ruling France 987–1328, founded by Hugh Capet (938–96), king of France 987–96.
Carta Caritatis

Carta Caritatis  

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Religion
The ‘Charter of Love’, so called in opposition to the obligatory charters of the Cluniac Order, was the document outlining the constitution of the Cistercian Order. It was presented to Pope Callistus ...
Castile

Castile  

A region of central Spain, on the central plateau of the Iberian peninsula, formerly an independent Spanish kingdom. The marriage of Isabella of Castile to Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 linked these ...

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