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civil society

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aid

aid  

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Overview Page
Transferring resources from developed to less developed countries. Bilateral aid is from one donor to a recipient country, while multilateral aid comes from a group of countries. Emergency aid is ...
Amnesty International

Amnesty International  

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Overview Page
An independent international organization in support of human rights, especially for prisoners of conscience, founded in London in 1961. The organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977.
Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1891–1937)Italian intellectual and founder of the Italian Communist Party.Born in Alès, Sardinia, Gramsci was educated at the University of Turin, where he studied history and philosophy. As a ...
Article 9

Article 9  

Article 9 of the Japanese constitution has been, and continues to be, a significant restraint on Japanese militarism. In 1946, when the new constitution was enacted, Japanese militarism was seen ...
association

association  

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Overview Page
The activities and goals that link people together in associations have been a primary subject of sociological and anthropological research. In English, the term has been used to translate Ferdinand ...
associativity

associativity  

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Overview Page
The principle of association by which people act in collective, self-organized ways in organizing their cultural life. Associativity is a crucial element in civil society. French political scientist ...
Cabinets de lecture

Cabinets de lecture  

In the eighteenth century, literary societies (cabinets de lecture, Lesegesellschaften) occupied a central position in several crucial social developments. In countries where the traditional social ...
central Europe

central Europe  

Cannot be sharply delimited on a map. Although it is situated on the east-west axis of the continent—the adjective “central” here signifies an in-between (as in Central America) rather than ...
cities

cities  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
A large, densely populated urban settlement, larger than a town, which can include two or more independent administrative districts within it and usually has suburbs.
civil religion

civil religion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In the 1960s a number of sociologists (including Talcott Parsons, Edward Shils, and Robert Bellah) distinguished civil religion from institutional (church-based) religion, arguing that societies such ...
civil rights

civil rights  

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Overview Page
In countries that have victimized certain groups in society, this means emancipation, elimination of segregation, equity, and equality of access to the services and institutions of society. See also ...
civil service

civil service  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Government posts were filled by patronage until well into the reign of Victoria. The Northcote–Trevelyan Report (1854) recommended changes, including entry to a civil service by competitive ...
Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
851 words

For contemporary scholars, social activists, and development professionals, civil society is that collection of diverse interest groups and social organizations

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,439 words

It was during the eighteenth century that the modern notion of civil society began to take shape and gain currency.

civil society

civil society   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
575 words

A realm of free activity and association that is not organized by the state. The idea of civil society has

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

Considerable definitional vagueness exists regarding civil society, in part due to the concept's long history and multiple underlying schools of

civil society

civil society   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
236 words

In international organizations, particularly the United Nations, this term refers principally to non-governmental organizations, widely defined. Para. 30 of

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,077 words

The concept of civil society is directly linked to political modernity. In Western culture the Grotian-Lockean model of political organization

Civil society

Civil society   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
400 words

Civil society is a term with a long history in political discourse that has become popular in recent decades. Modern

Civil Society and Development

Civil Society and Development   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,358 words

Civil society is a contested concept but is generally understood to mean that sphere of social life between the private

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