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Abrams v. United States

Abrams v. United States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis[...]
Academic Freedom.

Academic Freedom.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The American tradition of academic freedom drew inspiration from the German concept of Lehrfreiheit, the statutory rights of professors in state universities to teach and do research freely. ...
Activism

Activism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Judicial activism is an expression coined in the US in the 1940s, which has since become a political slogan. Like many slogans, it bears different shades of meaning. In contemporary ...
American Association of University Professors

American Association of University Professors  

(AAUP).The late nineteenth-century growth of the university and of academic specialization triggered notable clashes between academics and administrators. William Graham Sumner's controversial use of ...
American Civil Liberties Union

American Civil Liberties Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(‘ACLU’)The ACLU is a non‐profit, non‐partisan organization dedicated to defending the United States Bill of Rights. The organization boasts over 500,000 members and maintains a fifty‐state network ...
Communist Party Case

Communist Party Case  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1951).In the years after World War II, communism was viewed by many as a dire threat to Australian democracy. Community apprehension swelled as the union movement became subject to ...
Engel v. Vitale

Engel v. Vitale  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 370 U.S. 421 (1962)• Vote: 7–1• For the Court: Black• Concurring: Douglas• Dissenting: Stewart• Not participating: White• 370 U.S. 421 (1962)• Vote: 7–1• For the Court: Black[...]
equality

equality  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The state of being equal. In sociology, equality is viewed mainly in a social context and the lack of equality is regarded as being profoundly shaped by social structures.
Express constitutional rights

Express constitutional rights  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Australian Constitution does not contain a Bill of Rights. The framers of the Constitution were largely unconcerned with the protection of civil liberties. They were more interested in rights of ...
Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Bureau of Investigation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(FBI)The investigative branch of the US Department of Justice. Established by Attorney-General Charles J. Bonaparte (1851–1921) in 1908, it was at first called the Bureau of Investigation. It was ...
freedom of speech

freedom of speech  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Celebrated as first among civil liberties, freedom of speech (conceived broadly as the expression of verbal as well as non-verbal utterance) is both an instrumental and intrinsic good; instrumental ...
Hugo Lafayette Black

Hugo Lafayette Black  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1886–1971).Black rose from a locally respectable family in the isolated hill community of Clay County, Alabama, to be among the most significant justices ever to sit on the U.S. ...
James Bryant Conant

James Bryant Conant  

(1893–1978) educator and scientist, born in Boston, Massachusetts. Conant chaired the National Defense Research Council, the weapons research and development group of the federal Office of Scientific ...
Knox Court

Knox Court  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(18 October 1919 to 31 March 1930).Griffith's retirement as Chief Justice marked the end of an era; and when Barton died in January 1920, within three months of Knox's ...
League of Nations

League of Nations  

An organization for international cooperation established in 1919 by the Versailles Peace Settlement. A League covenant embodying the principles of collective security, arbitration of international ...
Louis D. Brandeis

Louis D. Brandeis  

(1856–1941),became known as the “people's attorney” when, early in his career, without pay he defended Boston citizens against local public utilities. His book Other People's Money (1914) greatly ...
Melbourne Corporation v Barry

Melbourne Corporation v Barry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1922)In Melbourne in the 1880s, city and suburban council bylaws prohibited street processions except with prior written consent from the mayor or town clerk, and with 24 hours advance ...
mental retardation

mental retardation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A mental disorder characterized by arrested or incomplete mental development, with onset before age 18, leading to significantly below-average intellectual functioning (specifically, IQ below 70), ...
Michael Hudson McHugh

Michael Hudson McHugh  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(born 1 November 1935; Justice since 1989)was the product of a strong working-class tradition. His father had felt the bite of the Depression and valued loyalty to his friends ...
Norman Thomas

Norman Thomas  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1884–1968),born in Ohio, graduated from Princeton (1905) and was a Presbyterian minister in New York City until his Socialist interest caused him to turn to other activities. He was ...

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