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Cicero

(106 bc — 143 ad) Roman statesman, orator, and writer

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academy

academy  

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The philosophical school of Plato; Akadēmeia was the name of the garden where Plato originally taught, named after the hero Akadēmos.
Advancement of Learning

Advancement of Learning  

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Literature
A treatise by F. Bacon, published 1605, systematizing his ideas for the reform and renewal of knowledge. Book I has a dual task: to defend knowledge in general from all its enemies, ecclesiastical ...
advocate

advocate  

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Law
N.1 One who exercises a right of audience and argues a case for a client in legal proceedings. In magistrates' courts, the county courts, tribunals, coroners' courts, and the European courts both ...
Ammianus Marcellinus

Ammianus Marcellinus  

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[Na]One of the last great Roman historians. Originally from Antioch, born c.ad 330, he served in the army and settled in Rome c.ad 378. His History, written in Latin for a Roman audience, spanned the ...
ancient scholarship

ancient scholarship  

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GreekIn one sense of the term, scholarship began when literature became a central element of education and the prescribed texts had to be explained and interpreted to pupils in a class. An early ...
Angelo Mai

Angelo Mai  

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Literature
(1782–1854),Italian philologist and palaeographer. Born of poor parents, he was educated at the Collegium Romanum and for a time belonged to the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). In 1813 he ...
Antiochus of Ascalon

Antiochus of Ascalon  

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(c.130–68 bc)Eclectic Hellenistic philosopher. Antiochus maintained the essential agreement of the opposed schools of philosophy of his time. His decisive break with Philo of Larissa arose from his ...
Antonio Loschi

Antonio Loschi  

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Literature
(1365–1441).One of the key humanists of Leonardo Bruni's generation. Born in Vicenza, he worked alongside Salutati in the Florentine chancery, but became the latter's political opponent when, as head ...
Arnold Pannartz

Arnold Pannartz  

(fl.1463–77),German printers. They were apprenticed in Mainz, possibly in Gutenberg's workshop, and in 1463 moved to Italy, where they established the first printing press outside Germany in the ...
Ars dictaminis

Ars dictaminis  

The ars dictaminis is the variety of medieval rhetoric that provided instruction in the composition of letters and other epistolary documents. Between 1077 and 1085, Alberic of Monte Cassino produced ...
Art Market

Art Market  

Before offering an account of its historical development, it is first necessary to define what is meant by art market. An art market differs from the situation in which art ...
Atticus

Atticus  

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Name given to the Roman writer and businessman Titus Pomponius (110–32 bc), friend and correspondent of Cicero; the name Atticus reflected his long residence in Athens.
Aulus Gellius

Aulus Gellius  

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(2nd cent. ad),Roman man of letters, author of Noctes Atticae, a miscellany containing extracts from many authors, anecdotes, and short discussions on various topics. Twelve of the stories in ...
Baldassare Castiglione

Baldassare Castiglione  

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Literature
(1478–1529)Italian courtier, diplomat, humanist, and author in a variety of genres. His best‐known work is Il libro del cortegiano (1528), translated into English as The Courtyer (1561) by Sir ...
Bernardino Partenio

Bernardino Partenio  

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Literature
(d.1589),contributed to one of the most important literary debates of the 16th c. with his Della imitazione poetica (1560). It deals exclusively with imitation in the older, Ciceronian sense ...
Brunetto Latini

Brunetto Latini  

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Literature
(c. 1220–c. 1294).Florentine scholar and statesman, author of Li Livres dou tresor, an important early French prose encyclopaedia in three books: the first treats philosophical, doctrinal, ...
Brutus

Brutus  

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In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Decius Brutus is one of the conspirators. Marcus Brutus is the idealistic friend of Caesar who is persuaded by Cassius to join the conspiracy. Caesar receives his ...
Carlo Sigonio

Carlo Sigonio  

(1520–84),Italian humanist and historian. He was born in Modena and became a student of Greek, in which he later held professorships in Modena, Venice, Padua, and Bologna. Sigonius published ...
Carneades

Carneades  

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(c.214–129 bc)The most prominent member of the later Academy after Arcesilaus. Carneades was a distinguished sceptic, famous (especially through the report by Cicero) for impressive speeches at Rome ...
Catiline

Catiline  

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(c. 108–62bc),Roman nobleman and conspirator. In 63 bc his planned uprising was discovered by Cicero, and Catiline fled from Rome. In the suppression of the uprising his fellow conspirators were ...

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