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cholera

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AB toxins

AB toxins  

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Multisubunit toxins that have an active (A) portion and a portion involved in binding (B) to target cells. The A portion is toxic if introduced directly into the cytoplasm. In several types (cholera ...
ADP-ribosylation

ADP-ribosylation  

A post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD. It is a normal regulatory mechanism but is also the way in which several AB toxins have their effects. ...
biological and chemical warfare

biological and chemical warfare  

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Chemical and biological weapons are often considered together because they are weapons of mass destruction. Chemical weapons have been used in recent years by nations and terrorist groups but there ...
coliform bacteria

coliform bacteria  

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A group of Gram-negative rodlike bacteria that are normally found in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to ferment the sugar lactose. The group includes the genera Enterobacter, ...
CTX

CTX  

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1. Crosslinked C-telopeptide of collagen type I, a marker for bone degradation.2. Cefotaxime, a beta-lactam antibiotic.3. Bacterial genes (CTX-M genes) that encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases ...
cystic fibrosis

cystic fibrosis  

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An inherited disorder affecting the exocrine glands, particularly the mucous secreting glands. Respiratory infection is a common complication and, in addition, oral signs can include tooth ...
disease

disease  

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History
Any illness or abnormal condition of the body with a specific cause (which may or may not be known), excluding physical trauma, that has recognizable signs and symptoms.
dysentery

dysentery  

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A severe diarrhoea caused by infection of the gut with Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, or Shigella sonnei (shigellosis or bacillary dysentery) or with Entamoeba histolytica ...
El Niño

El Niño  

[Spanish: ‘the (Christ) child’]A warm southward-flowing current that appears along the coast of Ecuador and Peru around Christmas. It was considered to bring a pleasant respite from the cold Peru ...
enterotoxin

enterotoxin  

n. a poisonous substance that has a particularly marked effect upon the gastrointestinal tract, causing vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.
epidemic

epidemic  

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n. a sudden outbreak of infectious disease that spreads rapidly through the population, affecting a large proportion of people. The commonest epidemics today are of influenza. Compare endemic, ...
epidemiology

epidemiology  

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(epi-dee-mi-ol-ŏji)the study of the distribution of diseases and determinants of diseases in populations, including all forms of disease that relate to the environment and ways of life.
Era of the Early Republic

Era of the Early Republic  

(1789–1828).Elections for the new federal government established by the Constitution were held in the winter of 1788–1789. Supporters of the Constitution, calling themselves Federalists, won control ...
exotoxin

exotoxin  

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n. a highly potent poison, often harmful to only a limited range of tissues, that is produced by a bacterial cell and secreted into its surrounding medium. It is generally unstable, being rendered ...
food poisoning

food poisoning  

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An illness affecting the digestive system that results from eating food that is contaminated by bacteria or bacterial toxins, viruses, or (less commonly) by residues of insecticides (on fruit and ...
food-borne disease

food-borne disease  

A class of diseases attributable to the contamination of food by disease agents, such as a pathogenic organisms and their toxins. These diseases include many kinds of gastroenteric infections, ...
G protein

G protein  

Any one of a group of proteins that relay signals in mammalian cells (see signal transduction). They occur on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and transmit signals from receptors on the outer ...
gastroenterological disorders

gastroenterological disorders  

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Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are caused by toxins (enterotoxins) in food or produced by infectious agents such as Enterobacter, Vibrio cholerae, enteroviruses (e.g. norovirus, ...
gastroenterology

gastroenterology  

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n. the study of gastrointestinal disease, which includes disease of any part of the digestive tract and also of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.
germ theory

germ theory  

The theory of disease causation by tiny living creatures was proposed or hinted at by scholars, philosophers, and physicians in antiquity. The theory was confirmed after the invention of the ...

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