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Jean-Siméon Chardin

(1699—1779)

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Boston, Museum of fine arts

Boston, Museum of fine arts  

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Founded by a group of civic-minded patrons in 1870. At that time the collection was a very modest one of a few old masters from the Boston Athenaeum and prints ...
chalk

chalk  

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Drawing material made from various soft stones or earths (or lately from synthetic equivalents). There are three main types of natural chalk: black chalk (made from stones such as carbonaceous ...
Charles-Nicolas Cochin

Charles-Nicolas Cochin  

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(1715–90).French designer and engraver of vignettes, frontispieces, and decorations for books. Among many other works he designed the frontispiece for Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie and was ...
Coypel

Coypel  

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Dynasty of French painters of which Noël (b Paris, 25 Dec. 1628; d Paris, 24 Dec. 1707) was the head. He worked in an academic style based on the example of Poussin and Le Brun, was much employed on ...
Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot  

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Literature
(1713–84),French philosopher and man of letters; a leading member of the Enlightenment, and from 1746 editor of the Encyclopédie. His works demonstrated close links with English literature: he ...
genre

genre  

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Term in art history and criticism for paintings or other works depicting scenes from daily life. It may be applied to appropriate art of any place or period, but most commonly suggests the type of ...
Goncourt brothers

Goncourt brothers  

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French men of letters, aesthetes, art collectors, and historians. Edmond (1822–96) and Jules (1830–70) de Goncourt began their literary career, which remained a close collaboration until the death ...
Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse  

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(b Le Cateau-Cambrésis, 31 Dec. 1869; d Nice, 3 Nov. 1954)French painter and stage designer. He designed two ballets for Massine: The Song of the Nightingale (1920) and Rouge et noir (1939). His ...
Jacques Aved

Jacques Aved  

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(b Douai, 12 Jan. 1702; d Paris, 4 Mar. 1766).French portrait painter. He was brought up in Amsterdam and earned the nickname Camelot (pedlar) because in his youth he ...
Jean-Baptiste Pigalle

Jean-Baptiste Pigalle  

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(b Paris, 26 Jan. 1714; d Paris, 21 Aug. 1785).French sculptor. He studied under J.-B. Lemoyne and then in Rome (1736–40). In his early career he endured poverty and sickness (his studies in Rome ...
Jean-Honoré Fragonard

Jean-Honoré Fragonard  

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(b Grasse, 5 Apr. 1732; d Paris, 22 Aug. 1806).French painter whose scenes of frivolity and gallantry are among the most complete embodiments of the Rococo spirit: he has been described as the ...
Luis Meléndez

Luis Meléndez  

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(b Naples, 1716; d Madrid, 11 July 1780).Spanish painter, active in Madrid. He painted various subjects, but from the 1760s he specialized in still life and is regarded as the finest Spanish painter ...
Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié

Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié  

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(b Paris, 16 June, 1735; d Paris, 14 Sept. 1784).French painter. His output included portraits and historical subjects, but he is best known for his domestic genre scenes, which have something of the ...
pastel

pastel  

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A drawing or painting material consisting essentially of a stick of colour made from powdered pigments mixed with just enough resin or gum to bind them (in addition there is usually a mineral filler ...
Pierre Subleyras

Pierre Subleyras  

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(b St-Gilles-du-Gard, 25 Nov. 1699; d Rome, 28 May 1749).French painter who settled permanently in Rome in 1728 after winning the Prix de Rome the previous year. He painted a variety of subjects, ...
Salon

Salon  

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An annual exhibition of the work of living artists held by the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris, originally in the Salon d'Apollon in the Louvre in 1667.Salon des Refusés an ...
still life

still life  

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A painting, drawing, or photograph of an arrangement of inanimate objects. Although still lifes can be found in pre-classical, classical, and Renaissance art, it was only in the 17th century that the ...
Wildenstein

Wildenstein  

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Dynasty of French art dealers and writers. The family firm was founded in Paris in 1875 by Nathan Wildenstein (1851–1934), and under him became one of the world’s leading dealers ...
William Scott

William Scott  

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(b Greenock, nr. Glasgow, 15 Feb. 1913; d Coleford, Somerset, 28 Dec. 1989).British painter of still-life (usually involving kitchen objects) and abstracts. In 1937–9 he lived in France, and ...

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