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Abrams v. United States

Abrams v. United States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis[...]
abridgement

abridgement  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A shorter version of an otherwise lengthy written work; also the process of selective cutting that results in such an abridged edition. Many classic literary works have appeared in abridged versions ...
Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Mickiewicz  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1798–1855),the outstanding poet of Poland, and the founder of the Romantic movement in Polish literature. Born and educated in Vilna, he was exiled in 1829, and lived thereafter mainly ...
adaptation

adaptation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
The process of making a work of art upon the basis of elements provided by an earlier work in a different, usually literary, medium; also the secondary work thus produced. Literary works have been ...
adult magazine

adult magazine  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Affordable, glossy, softcover, picture magazine containing photographic sexual imagery aiming to stimulate erotic responses. Such publications are also called ‘sex magazines’, ‘blue books’, ...
Africa

Africa  

Reference type:
Overview Page
This entry summarizes some of the main features of indigenous sub-Saharan African theatre and performance, concentrating on pre-colonial forms. For the syncretic forms which emerged after colonial ...
Al- Warsha Theatre Company

Al- Warsha Theatre Company  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Egyptian troupe, founded in 1987 by Hassan El-Geretly (its artistic director). Al-Warsha (Arabic for ‘workshop’) was the first and most financially secure of the non-commercial, independent companies ...
Alba De Cespedes

Alba De Cespedes  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1911–97).Novelist. The daughter of a Cuban diplomat and an Italian mother, she spent her early life in various countries before returning to live in Rome where she had been ...
Alberto Moravia

Alberto Moravia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
1907–1990)Italian writer, whose novels and short stories display his narrative skill and psychological insight.Moravia was born of Jewish stock in Rome, the setting for most of his stories. He began ...
Aleksandr Griboedov

Aleksandr Griboedov  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1795–1829)Russian dramatist and poet whose reputation rests on a single play, Gore ot uma, most commonly translated as Woe from Wit. The play owes a debt to Molière's The ...
Aleksandr Ostrovsky

Aleksandr Ostrovsky  

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Overview Page
(1823–86)Widely acknowledged as Russia's greatest playwright, he was also the most prolific, producing 47 original dramas and 22 translations of foreign plays. Comparatively unknown in the West, his ...
Aleksandr Sukhovo-Kobylin

Aleksandr Sukhovo-Kobylin  

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Overview Page
(1817–1903)Russian playwright and philosopher. Having studied in Moscow, Heidelberg, and Berlin (1834–42), his career was cut short when he was accused in 1850 of the murder of his French ...
Aleksandrinsky Theatre

Aleksandrinsky Theatre  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Named after Nicholas I's consort, Empress Aleksandra, the playhouse was one of two imperial theatres in St Petersburg and housed its principal acting company. The original troupe, headed by Ivan ...
Aleksei Tolstoy

Aleksei Tolstoy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1817–75)Russian writer. Well known for his short stories, poetry, and a novel, he retired from the civil service in 1861 to concentrate on literary work. Several ‘dramatic ballads’ were ...
Alexander Herzen

Alexander Herzen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1812–70),leading Russian revolutionary thinker, who settled in London in 1852, where he established the first Free Russian Press (1853) and wrote various works which, smuggled into Russia, were a ...
Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas  

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(1824–95)French dramatist. He became one of the most successful dramatists of the Second Empire. His play La Dame aux camélias (1852) was based on Dumas's own novel (1848) and inspired Verdi's opera ...
Alfonso Sastre

Alfonso Sastre  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Madrid, 20 Feb. 1926)Playwright and theorist, whose refusal to comply with the strict censorship of the Franco regime in Spain meant that his work remained largely unperformed in ...
Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts  

(1798).The term “Alien and Sedition Acts” refers to four controversial laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled Congress in 1798 in response to fears about imminent war with France and about ...
American Library Association

American Library Association  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The American Library Association (ALA), founded in 1876, is the largest library association in the world, with some sixty-four thousand members. ALA maintains the highest standards for library ...
Anatoly Efros

Anatoly Efros  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1925–87)Soviet/Russian director. In 1963 Efros led the Theatre of the Lenin Komsomol, where he created a repertoire largely based on contemporary drama, provoking political controversy with a number ...

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