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alcázar

alcázar  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(Arabic al‐kasr, ‘the palace’)A type of fortress in Spain, built by the Christians during their 14th‐ and 15th‐century wars against the Moors. It was usually rectangular with great corner towers, and ...
Andechs dynasty

Andechs dynasty  

A noble dynasty with properties in western Bavaria (castle Andechs on the Ammersee), Tyrol (control of the Brenner Pass), and around Bamberg. Visible on the scene from the end of ...
André Beauneveu

André Beauneveu  

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Overview Page
(b Valenciennes, c.1330/40; d ?Bourges, c.1403).Franco-Netherlandish artist, primarily a sculptor but also active as an illuminator and a designer of stained glass. He was born in Valenciennes and is ...
Anhalt

Anhalt  

Situated on the upper river Elbe, the castle of Anhalt was built c.1123 near Ballenstedt abbey. Bernhard, the first count, died in 1212. His son Henry was created prince in ...
animal finds in the east and west

animal finds in the east and west  

Archaeozoology reveals both sacred and secular human-animal relationships, adding scientific evidence to written and pictorial sources. Most finds represent opportunistic exploitation of cattle, ...
archaeology

archaeology  

The study of past human cultures through the analysis of material remains (as fossil relics, artefacts, and monuments), which are usually recovered through excavation.
archaeology: Germany and Austria

archaeology: Germany and Austria  

1. Introduction2. The early MA and the Carolingian period3. The high MA1. Introduction2. The early MA and the Carolingian period3. The high MA1. IntroductionIn Germany and ...
architectural styles

architectural styles  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
Buildings designed in the style of the Romans continued to be erected in western Europe until the end of the 12th century. In Britain this Romanesque style is divided into the Saxon and Norman ...
architecture, Civil

architecture, Civil  

Civil architecture includes public buildings and private dwellings, but excludes military constructions and rural architecture. Important public buildings comprised essentially imperial and royal ...
art and architecture: Angevin

art and architecture: Angevin  

(in Italy) The ruling family of Sicily and southern Italy, 1266–1414, known as Angevins after their place of origin, Anjou (France). Angevin rule on the whole, however, did not represent ...
art and architecture: Anglo-Norman

art and architecture: Anglo-Norman  

When the Normans conquered England in 1066, there was an extraordinary and thriving artistic tradition already in place, particularly in regard to manuscript illumination. While the political and ...
art and architecture: Norman

art and architecture: Norman  

1. Historical context2. Architecture in France3. Architecture in England4. Normans in Sicily and southern Italy5. MS illumination1. Historical context2. Architecture in France3. Architecture in ...
Baden

Baden  

*Castle, dynasty of princes, and territory on the upper Rhine (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). The castle of Baden-Baden is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest on the banks of ...
bailey

bailey  

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Subject:
History
The outer wall of a castle and a court enclosed by it. Recorded from Middle English, the word probably comes from Old French baile ‘palisade, enclosure’.
Baldwin family

Baldwin family  

Counts of Flanders. Baldwin I (r. c.863– 79) held the pagus Flandrensis (the Bruges district) and domains near Ghent from Charles II ‘the Bald’, after Baldwin’s elopement with Charles’s daughter ...
barbican

barbican  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
[Co]A tower or advance work defending the entrance to a castle.
Bari

Bari  

An Adriatic Port in Apulia, now a regional capital; the old town (which alone existed before the reign of Murat) occupies a low promontory. In Antiquity, it was a city ...
Basel

Basel  

A city, bishopric, and canton on the Rhine which in 1501 became the eleventh canton in the Swiss Confederation. The Council of Basel met in the choir of the cathedral ...
bathrooms

bathrooms  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
As early as the mid‐13th century the Palace of Westminster had bathrooms for the king and queen. In 1351–2 the king's bath was fitted with ‘two large bronze taps … to bring hot and cold water to the ...
Beaufort

Beaufort  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An English family descended from three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt (fourth son of Edward III) and Katherine Swynford. The children were legitimated in 1407 but with the exclusion of any claim ...

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