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Adrian IV

Adrian IV  

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(born Nicholas Breakspear) (c. 1100–59) Pope (1154–59). The only Englishman to have held this office, he opposed Frederick I's (Barbarossa's) claims to power.
Alexander III

Alexander III  

(d. 1181), Pope from 1159. After his election, an antipope (Victor IV) was immediately set up and supported by the Emp. Frederick I. During the 17-year schism, Alexander lived mainly in France. Here ...
Alexander IV, Pope

Alexander IV, Pope  

(c.1185–1261)Reginald was a son of Philip, lord of Jenne, with possessions at Subiaco and in the diocese of Anagni. According to Matthew Paris, he was the nephew of Pope ...
Alexander of Roes

Alexander of Roes  

(13th century) Canon,probably identical to Andreas of Leysberg OFM, in service to Cardinal Jacob Colonna; criticised conditions at the Roman curia. In his major work Memoriale de Prerogativa Romani ...
Anacletus II

Anacletus II  

(antipope 14 Feb. 1130–25Jan. 1138)On the death of Honorius II (13 Feb. 1130), while a minority of cardinals led by the chancellor Aimeric rushed through the clandestine election of Innocent II, the ...
antipope

antipope  

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Religion
A person set up as Bp. of Rome in opposition to the person holding the see or held to be lawfully elected to it.
Beguines

Beguines  

A member of a lay sisterhood in the Low Countries, formed in the 12th century and not bound by vows; members were allowed to leave their societies for marriage. They are still represented by small ...
Benedict XII

Benedict XII  

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Religion
(d. 1342), Pope from 1334. Jacques Fournier was the third of the Avignon Popes. A Cistercian monk and abbot, as Pope he inaugurated several ecclesiastical reforms. He fought the rapacity of the ...
Benedict XIII

Benedict XIII  

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Religion
(d. 1423), antipope at Avignon from 1394 to 1417. Pedro de Luna took part in the election of Urban VI, but later supported the antipope Clement VII. He succeeded him, largely because he promised to ...
Bertrand du Poujet

Bertrand du Poujet  

(c.1280–1352)Born at Castelnau-Montratier (Lot), a familiaris of the future John XXII who made him cardinal of the titulus of San Marcello on 18 December and appointed him Legate in ...
Bessarion

Bessarion  

(1399/1400–1472)Born at Trebizond of a modest family, the young Bessarion was noticed by Metropolitan Dositheus, who took him with him to Constantinople in c.1415. There he studied Rhetoric and ...
Biblical Commission

Biblical Commission  

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Religion
A committee of cardinals was instituted by Leo XIII in 1902 to further Biblical studies and to safeguard the authority of Scripture against the attacks of exaggerated criticism. In answer to ...
biretta

biretta  

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Religion
A hard square cap sometimes worn by clergy in the W. Church.
Bl. Benedict XI

Bl. Benedict XI  

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Religion
(22 Oct. 1303–7 July 1304)In the uproar in Rome following Boniface VIII's unexpected death the cardinals, having excluded Giacomo and Pietro Colonna under protest as excommunicate, unanimously ...
Boniface VIII

Boniface VIII  

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(c.1234–1303), Pope from 1294. His pontificate was dominated by his struggle with Philip the Fair of France. The bull ‘Clericis laicos’ (1296) forbade extraordinary taxation of the clergy without ...
bull

bull  

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A papal edict. Recorded from Middle English, the word comes via Old French from Latin bulla ‘bubble, rounded object’, in medieval Latin, ‘seal or sealed document’. Also called papal bull.
Caetani

Caetani  

Attested at Rome from the late 11th c., the Caetani appear in the 13th c. at Anagni, Pisa and Naples. It was Benedict Caetani, cardinal from 1281 and Pope under ...
Callistus II

Callistus II  

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Religion
(d. 1124), Pope from 1119. He was a strong opponent of lay investiture; during his pontificate the Investiture Controversy was settled by the Concordat of Worms (1122). At the Lateran Council of 1123 ...
Callistus III

Callistus III  

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(1378–1458), Pope from 1455. Originally a supporter of Benedict XIII, he induced his successor Clement VIII (antipope, 1423–9) to submit to Martin V. The main efforts of his Papacy were directed to ...
camera, Apostolic

camera, Apostolic  

Finance office of the papal court (curia), directed by the chamberlain, a cardinal late in the 12th century. In the 14th century a cardinals’ chamber separated, and the apostolic chamberlain ...

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