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advertising

advertising  

A communication that is paid for by an identified sponsor with the object of promoting ideas, goods, or services. It is intended to persuade and sometimes to inform. The two basic aspects of ...
Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton  

(c. 1757–1804)US Federalist politician. He served under George Washington as First Secretary of the Treasury (1789–95) and established the US central banking system. Hamilton was a prime mover behind ...
Alfred Sloan

Alfred Sloan  

(1875–1966)CEO of General Motors. A pivotal figure, not just in the history of American business but also in the development of marketing. He joined General Motors in 1916 having sold his car ...
antitrust

antitrust  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
This is the American term for competition law. The basic provision of US antitrust is the Sherman Act of 1890. Section 1 states: ‘Every contract, combination in the form of ...
automation

automation  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The use of automatic machinery and systems, particularly those manufacturing or data‐processing systems which require little or no human intervention in their normal operation. During the 19th ...
business cycle

business cycle  

Observed changes to economic conditions which move from prosperity through recession to depression and hence back to recovery and further prosperity. Also known as the economic cycle. See, for ...
Business Roundtable.

Business Roundtable.  

The Business Roundtable, an elite lobbying and advisory organization of chief executive officers (CEOs) from two hundred of the nation's largest business enterprises, was established in 1972 in ...
cartel

cartel  

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Overview Page
A system whereby producers divide up the market between themselves, avoiding direct competition and not encroaching on each other's share of the market. See Walker in R. Friman and P. Andreas, eds ...
chambers of commerce

chambers of commerce  

In the UK, a voluntary organization, existing in most towns, of commercial, industrial, and trading businessmen who represent their joint interests to local and central government. The London Chamber ...
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 11 Pet. 420 (1837)• Vote: 4–3• For the Court: Taney• Dissenting: McLean, Story, and ThompsonIn 1828, the state government of Massachusetts granted a charter, or permit, for construction of ...
City Planning.

City Planning.  

City planning arose early in American life. European colonizers designed St. Augustine (Spain, 1565), New Amsterdam (Holland, 1625–1626), Williamsburg (England, 1699), and New Orleans (France, 1722) ...
corporation

corporation  

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Overview Page
N.An entity that has legal personality, i.e. it is capable of enjoying and being subject to legal rights and duties (see juristic person) and possesses the capacity of succession. A corporation ...
Daniel Webster

Daniel Webster  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1782–1852)American statesman and orator, born in New Hampshire. He rose to great eminence in the law courts, the American House of Representatives and Senate, and in public speeches, when ...
Economic Regulation.

Economic Regulation.  

The objectives of economic regulation are usually mixed: to achieve an appropriate balance between efficiency and equity, to steer acquisitive human urges into productive channels, and to strike ...
economics

economics  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The study of the production, distribution, and consumption of resources, and the management of state income and expenditure. See also classical economics, ecological economics, environmental ...
ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.

ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.  

The energy crisis of the 1970s damaged the American economy and decisively affected presidential politics. Retaliating for Western support of Israel in the October 1973 Mideast War, Arab members of ...
Expansionism

Expansionism  

Expansionism—the desire of nations and empires to annex lands, peoples, or resources belonging to others—is a peculiar characteristic of a world order where boundaries are subject to the ambitions of ...
factory system

factory system  

The ‘factory system’ has been an important element in the accelerating processes of industrialization known as the industrial revolution. As British industrial enterprises expanded in the 18th cent., ...
Federal Regulatory Agencies.

Federal Regulatory Agencies.  

The first federal regulatory agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Created in 1887 after decades of controversy over “the railroad problem,” the ICC in many ways served as a ...
Foreign Trade, U.S.

Foreign Trade, U.S.  

Trade and commerce have had a formative influence on America from the Colonial Era onward. The British colonial system embraced the doctrines of mercantilism, with its closely regulated trade, ...

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