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Alamanni

Alamanni  

[CP]A confederation of several Germanic tribes who amalgamated in the 3rd century ad. In c.ad 260 they conquered the Roman frontier lands between the Rhine and the Danube, and remained there, despite ...
Ampulla, Holy

Ampulla, Holy  

The Holy Ampulla was one of the principal objects in the coronation liturgy of the kings of France at Reims; it commemorated the founding miracle of Clovis's baptism in 498 ...
Austrasia

Austrasia  

Eastern kingdom of the Rhineland (‘Ripuarian’) Franks, in what today is northeastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and Luxembourg. In the early 6th century the Merovingian king Clovis I ...
barbarian

barbarian  

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While we associate Classical culture primarily with emphasis on citizenship (membership of a polis), Classical Greek literature also assigns considerable importance to defining a common Greek ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...
Clovis

Clovis  

(465–511)King of the Franks (481–511). He succeeded his father Childeric (died 481) as king of the Salian Franks at Tournai, and extended Merovingian rule to Gaul and Germany after victories at ...
Evangelization

Evangelization  

The history of the evangelization of the West from the 5th to the 11th cc. can be broken up into five stages.When the Roman Empire in the West disappeared ...
Flavius Aetius

Flavius Aetius  

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[Na]Roman general who was effective ruler of the west from about ad 430 until his assassination in ad 454. His ‘realm’ lay in Gaul, whose boundaries he maintained with the aid of Hunnic and other ...
Franks

Franks  

A member of a Germanic people that conquered Gaul in the 6th century and controlled much of western Europe for several centuries afterwards. Also (in the eastern Mediterranean region), a person of ...
Germans

Germans  

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After the Celts the second major linguistic and cultural grouping encountered by the Graeco‐Roman world in northern Europe. It was the Romans' failure, between 12 bc and ad 9 (when a German ...
Invasion

Invasion  

During the first millennium, Europe was the theatre of a vast movement of migrations of peoples, ordered in two phases between the 4th and the 11th century.The settlement of ...
Lugdunum

Lugdunum  

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Colony founded in 43 bc by Munatius Plancus, and to the mid‐3rd cent. the metropolis of the NW of the Roman empire. Its position led to its becoming: the nodal point of Vipsanius Agrippa's Gallic ...
Lyon

Lyon  

At a convergence of land and water routes, Lyons was a commercial centre from ancient times. Originally in the kingdom of Burgundy, it became part of the (Holy) Roman Empire ...
Mogontiacum

Mogontiacum  

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Commanded important routes into the heart of Germany (see Germania), and was a bulwark of Roman power on the Rhine (Rhenus). Between 18 and 13 bc a fortress was built ...
Neustria

Neustria  

The western part of the Frankish empire in the Merovingian period. The name probably represents an unrecorded Frankish toponym meaning ‘new western dominion’, referring to the Franks' conquest of ...
Nibelung

Nibelung  

In Germanic mythology, a member of a Scandinavian race of dwarfs, owners of a hoard of gold and magic treasures, who were ruled by Nibelung, king of Nibelheim (land of mist). The treasure was ...
Orléans

Orléans  

A city in central France on the Loire which in 1429 was the scene of Joan of Arc's first victory over the English during the Hundred Years War; Orleans was also one of the main royal duchies of ...
Personality of Law

Personality of Law  

The principle of the personality of law, according to which each comes under the law of his ancestors, was still officially recognised in the Carolingian Empire. It led to the ...
Pisa

Pisa  

North Italian seaport that became one of the great urban centres of the MA. The Via Aurelia connected an Etruscan settlement to Rome in the 3rd century bc. A colonia ...
Probus

Probus  

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Roman emperor, b. Sirmium ad 232, commanded the eastern army in 276. He challenged Florianus after the death of the emperor Tacitus and, as the better general, emerged as sole emperor (autumn).He was ...

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