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Albanians

Albanians  

A nation of Thraco-Illyrian origin, in the Middle Ages the Albanians were ruled by the Byzantines (6th-14th cc.) and Bulgars (9th-10th cc.) before succumbing to the Turks (1479). The fourth ...
Angelos

Angelos  

(Ἄγγελος, fem. ᾽Αγγελίνα), a noble Byz. lineage founded by Constantine from Philadelphia, who married Theodora (born 1096), the daughter of Alexios I. According to a 12th-C. historian (Zon. ...
basileus

basileus  

The ruling principles of Byzantine imperial power had a dual origin: Roman, itself heir to the Alexandrian and Hellenistic tradition, and Christian. The terrestrial order being the reflection of the ...
Bulgaria

Bulgaria  

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History
Bulgaria is now politically more stable and is about to join the European UnionBulgaria has three main natural regions, each of which extends across the country from west to east. The most northerly, ...
Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire  

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Eastern, Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire from 330 B.C.E. to 1453 C.E. At its height, the Byzantine Empire encompassed the Balkans, Greece, Anatolia, the Levant, and parts of North Africa. In ...
Constantine V

Constantine V  

Emperor (741–75); born Constantinople 718, died Strongylon 14 Sept. 775. Leo III crowned his son Constantine as co-emperor in 720 and in 732 married him to the Khazar khagan's daughter, who took the ...
Euthymius of Tǔrnovo

Euthymius of Tǔrnovo  

(c.1320/1330–c.1402)The last Bulgarian patriarch before the liquidation of the autocephaly of the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria that followed the Ottoman conquest at the end of the 14th c., Euthymius ...
Formosus

Formosus  

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(c.816–96), Pope from 891. He acted constructively towards the E. Church, proposing a compromise solution to the question of Photius's ordinations. After his death the party opposed to him in ...
Irene

Irene  

(c. 752–803)Byzantine empress (780–802). After her husband Leo IV died (780) she ruled jointly with her son, Constantine VI, until 790 when he banished her. She soon returned, had him blinded and ...
Isaurians

Isaurians  

The Isaurian dynasty was a dynasty of Byzantine emperors whose founder was Leo III (717–741): he was succeeded by his son Constantine V (741–775), his grandson Leo IV (775–780), called ...
John VIII

John VIII  

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(14 Dec. 872–16 Dec. 882)A Roman, son of Gundo, for twenty years archdeacon, the close collaborator of Nicholas I, he was elected at an uncertain interval after Hadrian II's death. Although elderly, ...
Macedonian Dynasty

Macedonian Dynasty  

The Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) marked the apogee of the medieval Byzantine Empire. Its founder, Basil, a peasant born in Macedonia but of Armenian descent, claimed to be related to the ...
Nicaea

Nicaea  

An ancient city in Asia Minor, on the site of modern Iznik, which was important in Roman and Byzantine times. It was the site of two ecumenical councils of the early Christian Church (in 325 and ...
Nicephorus I, Emperor

Nicephorus I, Emperor  

(died 811)Byzantine emperor (802–811). Nicephorus was logothete of the genikon (finance minister) of the empress Irene when he took over the imperial power. A good administrator and excellent ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis  

Founded by Trajan on the Danube north-west of Tǔrnovo (Bulgaria), Nicopolis was incorporated by Septimius Severus in the province of Moesia, where Constantine II settled Ulfila's Goths. It became a ...
Ohrid

Ohrid  

Ohrid (Achrida, ancient Lychnidos) attests from the 4th and 5th cc. a Christian culture still very much alive after the ravages of the 6th- and 7th-c. invasions. The conversion of ...
Proto-bulgarian Inscriptions

Proto-bulgarian Inscriptions  

From the pre-Christian period of the Bulgarian state (681–864/5). A few brief inscriptions in runes resembling those used by the Orkhon Turks of Central Asia survive; though they cannot be ...
Saltovo

Saltovo  

A village in the Ukraine near the Siverskij Donec where in 1890–1900 an extensive complex of fortified (120 hectares) and open settlements (villages) were excavated; hence the newly discovered ...
Serbia

Serbia  

A country which has dominated the history of the western Balkan region since the early twentieth century.Early history (until 1992)After several uprisings, Serbia became autonomous within the Ottoman ...
Simeon of Bulgaria

Simeon of Bulgaria  

(died 927)Prince, then tsar of the Bulgars (893–927). Preparing for a religious career at Constantinople, Simeon was recalled by his father Boris who had just had his eldest son ...

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