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action potential

action potential  

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The change in voltage that occurs across the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a nerve impulse is triggered. It is due to the passage of charged particles across the membrane (see ...
arousal

arousal  

1 The transition from the sleeping to the waking state.2 An increase in the responsiveness of an animal to sensory stimuli.
arousal vs awareness

arousal vs awareness  

There is at present no satisfactory, universally accepted definition of consciousness. For the purposes of clinical neurosciences, consciousness consists of two basic components: arousal (i.e. ...
attentional blink

attentional blink  

The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary state of poor awareness of current stimuli, lasting about half a second, that is induced by focusing attention and becoming consciously aware of ...
autonoetic

autonoetic  

Self-knowing, used in relation to consciousness of something personally experienced. In an article in the journal Canadian Psychologist in 1985, the Estonian-born Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving ...
autonomic nervous system

autonomic nervous system  

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That part of the nervous system that controls and regulates involuntary body functions (e.g. digestion, heart rate, and temperature regulation). It is divided up into the sympathetic and ...
biopsy

biopsy  

(by-op-si)the removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or part of the body for microscopic examination.
blind spot

blind spot  

The small area of the retina of the eye where the nerve fibres from the light-sensitive cells (see cone, rod) lead into the optic nerve. There are no rods or cones in this area and hence it does not ...
blood sugar

blood sugar  

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The concentration of glucose in the blood, normally expressed in millimoles per litre. The normal range is 3.5–5.5 mmol/l. Blood-sugar estimation is an important investigation in a variety of ...
body clock

body clock  

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We live in a world that changes its levels of illumination and temperature every day and night of our lives. To make the best of opportunities and to avoid the ...
brainstem

brainstem  

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n. the enlarged extension upwards within the skull of the spinal cord, consisting of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The pons and medulla are together known as the bulb, or bulbar ...
cell signalling

cell signalling  

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The interchange of information between cells, usually mediated by the release of soluble factors but sometines by contact or by exchange of small molecules or ions through gap junctions.
central nervous system

central nervous system  

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(CNS) the brain and the spinal cord, as opposed to the cranial and spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system, which together form the peripheral nervous system. The CNS is responsible for the ...
cerebellum

cerebellum  

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The part of the metencephalon consisting of a vermis, flocculonodular lobe, and two hemispheres. It lies in the posterior cranial fossa. It is responsible for the coordination of movement and balance.
cerebral haemorrhage

cerebral haemorrhage  

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Bleeding from a cerebral blood vessel into the tissue of the brain. It is commonly caused by degenerative disease of the arteries and high blood pressure but it may result from bleeding from ...
cerebral hemisphere

cerebral hemisphere  

Either of the two halves of the cerebrum, separated by the longitudinal fissure, having slightly different functions in humans. Also called simply a hemisphere. See also cerebral dominance, ...
cerebral palsy

cerebral palsy  

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A disorder of movement and/or posture as a result of nonprogressive but permanent damage to the developing brain. This damage may occur before, during, or immediately after delivery and has many ...
cerebrum

cerebrum  

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The largest brain structure, comprising the diencephalon and the cerebral hemispheres, the outer layer or cerebral cortex of which controls most sensory, motor, and cognitive processes in humans. ...
cochlea

cochlea  

Part of the inner ear of some reptiles, birds, and mammals. It is concerned with the analysis of the pitch of received sound. In mammals other than Monotremata it is spirally coiled.
coma

coma  

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n. a state of unrousable unconsciousness. See also Glasgow Coma Scale.

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