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Brahman

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Ābhāsa-caitanya

Ābhāsa-caitanya  

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(Skt., ‘reflection’ + ‘consciousness’).The way in which, in Hinduism, absolute consciousness (cit) is reflected in human awareness. The world-entangled self (jīva) takes this reflection to be the ...
abhimāna

abhimāna  

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(Skt.). Conceit or arrogance, an aspect of the major kleśa pride. Abhimāna is characterized by the arrogant posturing that one has achievements which one does not actually possess.
Advaita

Advaita  

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(Sanskrit, non-duality)The doctrine of the Vedantic school associated with Shankara, that asserts the identity of brahman and atman; the empirical world is one of phenomena bene fundata and, like the ...
Advaita Vedānta

Advaita Vedānta  

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One of the major theological cum philosophical schools of the Vedānta darśana, now closely associated with the teachings of Śaṅkara (Śaṅkarācārya). The earliest identifiable Advaita text, the ...
Afterlife

Afterlife  

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In Islam, one's condition in the afterlife, whether in heaven or hell, is determined by the degree to which one has affirmed the unity and justice of God, acted with mercy and justice toward others, ...
Agnihotri

Agnihotri  

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(1859–1928).Hindu founder of the Dev Samaj. Originally called Shiv Narayan, he was born into a brahman family and became a teacher in Lahore. He joined the Brahmo Samāj, and ...
Aham Brahman asmi

Aham Brahman asmi  

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‘I am Brahman’ (Bṛhadāraṇaya Upaniṣad 1.4.10). Hindu formula through which the identity of the self (ātman) with Brahman is proclaimed. It is one of the mahāvākyas, great precepts.
ajātivāda

ajātivāda  

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Teaching, originating in the earliest śāstra of the Advaita Vedānta system, the Gauḍapādīya Kārikā, that nothing has ever really come into existence (i.e. that change is illusory).
Ajñāna

Ajñāna  

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(Skt.).In Hinduism, the opposite of jñāna, but particularly ignorance of the identity of ātman and Brahman, and thus in consequence equivalent to avidyā.
akṣara

akṣara  

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(Skt.). A syllable, letter, or phoneme, especially of Sanskrit. In tantric Buddhism these syllables often constitute a hidden code with mystical significance known only to initiates.
Anāhata-śabda

Anāhata-śabda  

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(Skt., ‘not-struck sound’).Awareness of pure sound beneath audible sounds (as of Brahman underlying appearances).
Antaragattamma

Antaragattamma  

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This epic of Dravidian India is of the type that is told in homes rather than at religious festivals. It concerns the whole question of caste. In the story a ...
Anubhava

Anubhava  

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(Skt., ‘experience’).In Vedānta, ‘experience’ or ‘intuition’ as the basis of an individual's knowledge of Brahman, the Absolute. For Śaṅkara brahman-anubhava, the ‘intuition of Brahman’, is the ...
Ardhanārī

Ardhanārī  

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(Skt., ‘half-female’).The androgynous form of a Hindu deity, especially of Śiva as Ardanārīśvara, ‘Hermaphrodite Lord’. In painting or sculpture, the ardhanārī is represented with the left side of ...
atman

atman  

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In Hindu philosophy, the spiritual life principle of the universe, especially when regarded as immanent in the real self of the individual. Various strands in Hindu thought differ in the way they ...
Aurobindo Ghose

Aurobindo Ghose  

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(1872–1950)Indian mystic and spiritual leader. His philosophical writings attempt to synthesize evolutionary science with a mystical view of the supreme reality or Brahman.
Avatars of Viṣṇu

Avatars of Viṣṇu  

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The god Viṣṇu (see Viṣṇu) assumes various earthly forms in Hindu mythology (see Hinduism entries) in order to restore cosmic order. The first avatar was the great horned fish who saved Manu, the ...
avidyā

avidyā  

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(Skt.; Pāli, avijjā).Ignorance; in Buddhism it refers specifically to ignorance about the workings of karma.the Four Noble Truths, and the Three Jewels (triratna). Avidyā is the root cause of ...
avyakta

avyakta  

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In Purāṇic cosmogony and Sāmkhya, avyakta is synonymous with pradhāna and prakṛti, ‘original Nature’ or undifferentiated matter. In the Bhagavadgītā (9.4), Kṛṣṇa characterizes the entire universe as ...
Ayam Ātman Brahman

Ayam Ātman Brahman  

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(Skt., ‘This Self is Brahman’: Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 4. 4. 5)one of the Mahāvākyas in Hinduism, the realization that ātman is Brahman.

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