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Claudius Marcellus, Marcus

Claudius Marcellus, Marcus  

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(RE 220)one of Rome's most outstanding commanders, served in the First Punic War, and at unknown dates thereafter became an augur, curule aedile, and praetor. As consul in 222 ...
Cornēlius Scīpiō Aemiliānus Africānus (Numantīnus), Publius

Cornēlius Scīpiō Aemiliānus Africānus (Numantīnus), Publius  

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B. 185/4 bc as second son of Aemilius Paullus (2), adopted as a child by Cornelius Scipio, son of Cornelius Scipio Africanus. In 168 he fought under Paullus at Pydna. Back in Rome, he met Polybius, ...
donative

donative  

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In the imperial period an irregular monetary payment to soldiers, perhaps originally associated with distributions of booty. Donatives celebrated important events linked to the emperor—imperial ...
Duilius Gaius

Duilius Gaius  

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Consul 260 bc, appointed to command in west Sicily; took over command of Rome's first battle‐fleet. Using a rotatable boarding‐bridge, he defeated the Carthaginians under Hannibal (not the famous ...
ecloga

ecloga  

(᾽Εκλογή τω̑ν νόμων, lit. “selection of the laws”), a law book issued in Mar. 741 (rather than 726) by Leo III and Constantine V. The Ecloga presents in 18 titles ...
Iulius Caesar, Gaius

Iulius Caesar, Gaius  

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(RE 131)born 100 bc (Suetonius Divus Iulius 88. 1), of a patrician family without social equals, as descendants of Venus and Aeneas, but with little recent political success. His ...
manubiae

manubiae  

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Roman military term, meaning that part of the booty legitimately appropriated by an army commander as holder of imperium, and of which he was free to dispose as he wished without any legal ...
marauders

marauders  

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‘Marauders are individuals moving, either singly or collectively in bands, over battlefields, or following advancing or retreating forces, in quest of booty. They have nothing to do with warfare in ...
Mummius Lucius

Mummius Lucius  

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As praetor and proconsul (153/2 bc) defeated the Iberian Lusitani, triumphing 152. As consul 146 he succeeded Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in Macedonia and in the command against the revolt of the ...
Nomos Stratiotikos

Nomos Stratiotikos  

(Νόμος στρατιωτικός; Lat. Leges militares, “Soldier's Law”), a collection of approximately 55 regulations, mainly penal and disciplinary, for soldiers.Manuscript TraditionThe extensive MS tradition ...
orientalizing

orientalizing  

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An expression applied to certain phases of Etruscan, Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman art when they appear to adopt stylistic traits characteristic of the near east. Examples include the influence of ...
Peculium Castrense

Peculium Castrense  

(στρατιωτικὸν πεκούλιον). The 8th-C. Ecloga (16.1) defines peculium castrense as goods (i.e., wages, Booty, legacies, etc.) acquired while in military service, which were the soldier's own to ...
postliminium

postliminium  

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‘The term “postliminium” is originally one of Roman Law, derived from post and limen (i.e. boundary)…. Modern International Law and Municipal Law have adopted the term to indicate the fact ...
Roman coinage

Roman coinage  

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The progressive extension of Roman hegemony over central Italy brought booty in the form of gold, silver, and bronze; the means to create a coinage on the Greek model were at hand. The stimulus was ...
Roman finance

Roman finance  

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‘Taxes are the sinews of the state.’ So claimed both Cicero and Domitius Ulpianus (Ulpian). Despite this recognition of the central importance of taxation, no systematic ancient treatment of Roman ...
rules of war

rules of war  

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These, like much other international law (see law, international), depended on custom and showed a constant conflict between the higher standards of optimistic theory and the harsher measures ...
sculpture

sculpture  

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A work of art carried out in three dimensions. There are four basic processes: carving (in stone, wood, etc); modelling in clay; modelling in clay or wax and then casting in bronze; constructing—a ...
slavery

slavery  

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History
[Ge]A form of social stratification in which some individuals are literally owned by others as their property.
Sparta

Sparta  

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The settlement developed at the northern end of the central plain of Laconia on land sloping eastwards to the marshy banks (hence ‘Limnae’: see below) of the river Eurotas and ...
Trajan

Trajan  

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(c. 53–117 ad),Roman emperor 98–117. His reign is noted for the many public works undertaken and for the Dacian wars (101–6), which ended in the annexation of Dacia as a province, and which are ...

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