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Niels Bohr

(1885—1962) Danish physicist and pioneer in quantum physics

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Aage Niels Bohr

Aage Niels Bohr  

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(1922–2009) Danish physicistBohr, the son of Niels Bohr, was born in the Danish capital, Copenhagen, and educated at the university there. After postgraduate work at the University of London from ...
Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov  

(1921–89)Russian nuclear physicist. Having helped to develop the Soviet hydrogen bomb, he campaigned against nuclear proliferation and called for Soviet–American cooperation. He fought courageously ...
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld  

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(1868–1951)German physicist who modified the Bohr theory of the atom, suggesting that orbital electrons travelled in elliptical orbits.The son of a physician, Sommerfeld was educated at the ...
atomic bomb

atomic bomb  

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1. DevelopmentFollowing the discovery of radioactivity by the French scientist Henri Becquerel in 1896, measurements of the kinetic energies of alpha-particles emitted by radioactive atoms led the ...
Atomic Scientists

Atomic Scientists  

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From the moment when Albert Einstein in 1940 suggested to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, that a new and decisive military weapon, the atom bomb, might be developed from the phenomenon ...
atomic structure

atomic structure  

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By 1890, much evidence had accumulated that the atom of chemistry and the molecule of physics must have parts. The chemical evidence included analogies between the behavior of dilute solutions ...
Bohr Institute

Bohr Institute  

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The Niels Bohr Institute, given its present name in 1965 in commemoration of the eightieth birthday of the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, was inaugurated in 1921 as Copenhagen University's Institute ...
Bohr theory

Bohr theory  

The theory published in 1913 by Niels Bohr to explain the line spectrum of hydrogen. He assumed that a single electron of mass m travelled in a circular orbit of radius r, at a velocity v, around a ...
chemical bond

chemical bond  

A strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a molecule or crystal. In general, atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or transferring electrons in their outer shells. Typically ...
Chemical elements

Chemical elements  

A substance that consists of atoms of the same type, and cannot be broken down into chemically simpler substances. There are 92 naturally occurring elements, although others have been synthesized ...
complementarity

complementarity  

The concept that a single model may not be adequate to explain all the observations made of atomic or subatomic systems in different experiments. For example, electron diffraction is best explained ...
dynasty

dynasty  

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[Ge]A line of rulers whose right to power is inherited.
Edward Teller

Edward Teller  

(1908–2003)Hungarian-born US physicist, sometimes known as the ‘father of the hydrogen bomb’.The son of a lawyer, Teller was educated at the Budapest Institute of Technology and the universities of ...
English-speaking world

English-speaking world  

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Science has had several principal languages over the centuries—Greek, Latin, Italian, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, and English. During the eighteenth century, French dominated discourse about ...
Erich Hückel

Erich Hückel  

(1896–1980)German physicist and theoretical chemist who worked with Peter Debye at Zürich on the theory of electrolytes. Later he moved to Copenhagen to work with Niels Bohr and here he produced his ...
Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford  

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(1871–1937)A New Zealand-born physicist, Rutherford worked at the Universities of Cambridge and Manchester, and at McGill University in Canada. He made important studies of radiation and the ...
Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Schrödinger  

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(1887–1961)Austrian physicist, who became professor of physics at Berlin University in 1927. He left for Oxford to escape the Nazis in 1933, returned to Graz in Austria in 1936, and then left again ...
grants

grants  

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Make possible most of basic scientific research conducted in universities and colleges. In the United States and Britain, the role of private philanthropies has been prominent in developing the ...
Harold Clayton Urey

Harold Clayton Urey  

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(1894–1981)US physical chemist, who became a professor at the University of California in 1958. His best-known work was the discovery of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in 1932, for which he was awarded ...
instrumentalism and realism

instrumentalism and realism  

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Realists believe that the objects scientists study exist independently of the scientists. They also believe that science should aim at finding the truth, that the entities scientists have identified ...

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