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Brownshirt

Brownshirt  

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Member of an early Nazi paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung or SA (‘assault division’). The Brownshirts, recruited from various rough elements of society, were founded by Adolf Hitler in ...
Giacomo Matteotti

Giacomo Matteotti  

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(1885–1924)Italian socialist leader. A member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, he began in 1921 to organize the United Socialist Party. He openly accused Mussolini and his Blackshirts of winning ...
Giovanni Giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti  

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(b. 27 Oct. 1842, d. 17 July 1928).Prime Minister of Italy 1892–3, 1903–5, 1906–9, 1911–14, 1920–1 A law graduate from the University of Turin (1860), he became a civil servant and served, amongst ...
Italo Balbo

Italo Balbo  

(b. 6 June 1896, d. 28 June 1940).Italian Fascist After participating in World War I he became a leader of the Fascist blackshirts. He organized the March on Rome in 1922, and in 1923 was appointed ...
March on Rome

March on Rome  

(27– 9 Oct. 1922)The events that led to Mussolini's seizure of power. On 27 October the Fascist movement mobilized, and attempted to cut off all lines of communication to the capital in order to ...
MVSN

MVSN  

(Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, Voluntary Militia for National Security) (Italy)Created in January 1923 to establish a militia answerable to Mussolini alone, it initially consisted ...
SA

SA  

Founded in Germany in 1920 to establish order at the meetings of the Nazi Party, the SA was developed into a paramilitary organization from 1921. Banned after the Hitler Putsch, it was re-established ...

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