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Africa

Africa  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The second largest continent, extending south from the Mediterranean Sea and bounded by the Atlantic and Indian oceans and the Red Sea.Physical.The Equator passes through the middle of Africa, so ...
African American Religion.

African American Religion.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The religious beliefs of so large and diverse a population cannot be unified into a single, artificial scheme. The African dispersion has now mingled with many other sources, and black ...
African Americans

African Americans  

A citizen or resident of the United States whose ancestry can be traced to Africa. A term intended to avoid the pejorative associations of words such as “negro” and “black.” An estimated 10 to 12 ...
African Blood Brotherhood

African Blood Brotherhood  

The African Blood Brotherhood for African Liberation and Redemption (ABB) was a Marxist communist and black nationalist organization that emerged in response to the violent race riots of the Red ...
African Diaspora

African Diaspora  

[This entry contains two subentries dealing with the African diaspora, from the origins of slave trade through nineteenth-century America. The first article focuses on the evolution and criticism of ...
Afrocentrism

Afrocentrism  

Afrocentrism is a theoretical concept that examines blacks of African descent as the subject of their experiences. It is an academic, historical approach to the study of world history. The ...
Albert Cleage

Albert Cleage  

(b. 13 June 1911; d. 20 February 2000),clergyman, And Pearl (b. 7 December 1948), author, journalist, and playwright. Albert Buford Cleage was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, and grew up ...
Alexander Crummell

Alexander Crummell  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1819–98),black minister of the Episcopal Church in his native U.S., after education at Cambridge and long residence in Liberia. His works include The Future of Africa (1862) and Africa and America ...
An American Dilemma

An American Dilemma  

(1944).Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy ranks among the most important studies of American race relations. The “American Negro Problem,” Myrdal argued, lay ...
Amiri Baraka

Amiri Baraka  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1934– )African American playwright, poet, and activist born in Newark, New Jersey, as Everett LeRoi Jones. Throughout his career he has used his writing as an extended polemic against American ...
Betty Shabazz

Betty Shabazz  

(b. 28 May 1936; d. 23 June 1997),widow of Malcolm X and educator. Born Betty Jean Sanders in Detroit, Michigan, Shabazz was raised there in a middle-class family by ...
Black Abolitionists

Black Abolitionists  

Historians acknowledge the existence of “two abolitionisms” in the antebellum United States—one black, one white. Although black and white abolitionists shared similar views about the moral evil of ...
Black Liberation Army

Black Liberation Army  

The Black Liberation Army (BLA) defined itself as a politico-military organization engaged in armed struggle against the U.S. government. Operating from about 1971 to 1981, the BLA used tactics ...
Black Panthers

Black Panthers  

The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (later simply the Black Panther Party) was born in Oakland, California, on 15 October 1966, and was a radical anti-oppression organization that became ...
Black Power

Black Power  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Originating as a movement in the 1960s, it was developed into a coherent ideology by Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton in their book Black Power (1969). It called upon African Americans to take ...
Black Seafarers

Black Seafarers  

Throughout the early modern era (1550–1830), blacks participated in the maritime trades and served in navies. By examining crew lists, port authority records, travel narratives, and autobiographies, ...
Black Separatism

Black Separatism  

After 1820, when the political climate in the United States began to turn more strongly against black people, black separatism and full integration into American society were the two main ...
blaxploitation

blaxploitation  

The exploitation of black people, especially with regard to stereotyped roles in films.
Charles Henry Langston

Charles Henry Langston  

(b. c. 1817; d. 14 December 1892), an abolitionist, temperance leader, and educator.Charles Henry Langston was born in Louisa County, Virginia, the son of Captain Ralph Quarles, a white ...
Charlie Parker

Charlie Parker  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
1920–1955)Black US jazz saxophonist, often nicknamed ‘Bird’. In spite of his short life, he was one of the most important jazz musicians of his generation.He grew up in Kansas City, during the time ...

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