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Bishops' Wars

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Alexander Henderson

Alexander Henderson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(c.1583–1646), Scottish Covenanting leader. He was mainly responsible for drafting the National Covenant of 1638, and during the Bishops' Wars of 1639–40 he was the recognized leader of the Scottish ...
battle of Newburn

battle of Newburn  

1640.Though the battle of Newburn was little more than a skirmish, it helped to bring Charles I to the scaffold. The first Bishops' War in 1639 ended in negotiation, but the following year a large ...
Cavaliers

Cavaliers  

Nickname for the royalists who fought for Charles I during the civil wars. Like ‘roundhead’, ‘cavalier’ originated as a term of abuse. Stemming from the Spanish word caballero, it was meant to ...
Charles I

Charles I  

(1600–49),king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625–49). Charles was the second son of James VI. Born in Scotland, he moved to England in 1604 after his father ascended the English throne. He ...
civil wars

civil wars  

1642–51.In 1629 Charles I dismissed Parliament, resolving never to call another. He might have succeeded but for the problem of the multiple kingdoms. During the 1630s he decided to bring Scottish ...
Covenanters

Covenanters  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An adherent of the National Covenant (1638) or the Solemn League and Covenant (1643), upholding the organization of the Scottish Presbyterian Church.
Eleven Years Tyranny

Eleven Years Tyranny  

(1629–40).After the tumultuous end to the 1629 session of Parliament (see Eliot, Sir John) Charles I broke with convention by ruling without Parliament for eleven years. Financial needs were met ...
Long Parliament

Long Parliament  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1640–60)The English Parliament called by Charles I after the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him. Led by the Parliamentarian John Pym, by August 1641 it had made a series of enactments depriving him of ...
Lord Strafford Thomas Wentworth

Lord Strafford Thomas Wentworth  

(1593–1641)English statesman. A Member of Parliament from 1614, he entered the service of Charles I in 1628. Although he had previously opposed royal policies, he was a believer in firm government ...
Short Parliament

Short Parliament  

April–May 1640.The first Bishops' War ended inconclusively because Charles I was not strong enough to fight the Scots. He summoned Parliament in 1640 in the expectation that it would provide the ...
1st duke of Hamilton, James Hamilton

1st duke of Hamilton, James Hamilton  

(1606–49)Scottish nobleman, a supporter of the Cavalier cause. Charles I appointed him the king's commissioner in Scotland in 1638, but despite negotiating with the Covenanters, he was unable to ...
treaty of Berwick

treaty of Berwick  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
1357.David II, king of Scotland, was captured at Neville's Cross in 1346. Eleven years later, by the treaty of Berwick, he was ransomed for 100,000 marks.
treaty of Ripon

treaty of Ripon  

1640.The treaty of Ripon brought to an end the second Bishops' War between Charles I and the Scottish covenanters. Charles had little to negotiate with. By the terms of the armistice, the Scots were ...
William Fiennes Saye and Sele, 1st Viscount

William Fiennes Saye and Sele, 1st Viscount  

(1582–1662).Saye and Sele was a leading member of the radical, win-the-war faction in the House of Lords during the 1640s. As early as the 1620s he was a critic ...

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