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biosphere

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atmosphere

atmosphere  

A gaseous envelope gravitationally bound to a celestial body; in the case of the Earth, with an average composition, by volume, of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and traces of rare ...
atmospheric chemistry

atmospheric chemistry  

The study of the chemical composition of the atmosphere, of aerosols, pollutants, and rainfall, and the various chemical reactions in which they are involved. It includes the processes of ...
Bacteria

Bacteria  

One of three superkingdoms (domains) of cellular organisms, the others being Archaea and Eukarya. Bacteria are unicellular and anucleate i.e. prokaryotes. They embrace a great diversity of forms, ...
biogeochemical cycle

biogeochemical cycle  

The cyclical movement of elements between living organisms (the biotic phase) and their nonliving (abiotic) surroundings (e.g. rocks, water, air). Examples of biogeochemical cycles are the carbon ...
biogeochemistry

biogeochemistry  

The scientific study of the effects of living things on subsurface geology; or with the distribution and fixation of chemical elements in the biosphere. Its principles are applied to the systematic ...
biohistory

biohistory  

The interplay between human society and the biosphere (Medley et al. (2003) AAAG 93, 1). S. Boyden (1987) gives an account of the stages of civilization, from the primeval and early farming stages to ...
biological conservation

biological conservation  

Active management to ensure the survival of the maximum diversity of species, and the maintenance of genetic variety within species. The term also implies the maintenance of biosphere functions, e.g. ...
Biosphere II

Biosphere II  

A man‐made, closed ecological system that was constructed in the Arizona desert between 1987 and 1989, in which experiments were conducted to study how ecosystems operate and to evaluate whether ...
biotic

biotic  

Applied to the living components of the biosphere or of an ecosystem, as distinct from the non-living, abiotic, physical and chemical components.
black smokers and white smokers

black smokers and white smokers  

At the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR) sea water is heated and circulated at depth, forming localized convective systems similar to geothermal systems on land (see geothermal energy). The bedrocks are ...
carbon cycle

carbon cycle  

The movement of carbon through the surface, interior, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon exists in atmospheric gases, in dissolved ions in the hydrosphere, and in solids as a major component of ...
carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide  

A colourless, odourless gas which is the fourth most abundant component of the air in the homosphere, amounting to about 0.035 per cent by volume. It is released by volcanoes, part of the source ...
climate

climate  

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The characteristic pattern of weather elements in an area over a period. The weather elements include temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar insolation, wind, etc. The climate of a large area is ...
climate system

climate system  

The five interacting environmental systems (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations.
conservation

conservation  

The artificial control of ecological relationships in an environment in order to maintain a particular balance among the species present.
core area

core area  

The inner area of a biosphere reserve which is legally protected and where only the minimum amount of human activity is allowed, to enable plants and animals to thrive without disturbance from ...
Earth History

Earth History  

The Earth and other nearby planetary bodies formed approximately 4.65 billion years ago as a result of the clustering of condensed particles early in the history of the solar system. ...
ecology

ecology  

(ee-kol-ŏji)the study of the relationships between humans, plants and animals, and the environment.—ecologicaladj.—ecologistn.
ecosystem

ecosystem  

An assemblage of interacting populations of species grouped into communities in a local environment. Ecosystems vary greatly in size (e.g., a small pool vs. a giant reef). See biome.
Eduard Suess

Eduard Suess  

(1831–1914)Professor of geology in Vienna, Suess published his important work on structural geology, Das Antlitz der Erde (‘Face of the Earth’), between 1833 and 1909. He studied mountain building, ...

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