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animal

animal  

Animal Farm a fable (1945) by George Orwell which consists of a satire on Russian Communism as it developed under Stalin. The animals of the farm, led by the pigs, revolt against the cruel farmer, ...
beast fable

beast fable  

The commonest type of fable, in which animals and birds speak and behave like human beings in a short tale usually illustrating some moral point. The fables attributed to Aesop (6th century bce) and ...
bird

bird  

A class (Aves) of endothermic (see endotherm) vertebrates that are adapted for flight, bipedal walking or running, and, in some species, swimming on or below the surface of water; flightless species ...
Bondie Dietaiuti

Bondie Dietaiuti  

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Literature
(mid-13th c.). Florentine poet, of whom we have four canzoni and three sonnets. He is strongly influenced by Provençal troubadour models, though without the mediation of Guittone, and uses imagery ...
eagle

eagle  

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Religion
This large bird of prey, renowned for its keen sight and powerful soaring flight, is traditionally regarded as the king of birds. In the 15th-century Boke of St Albans, the eagle is listed in ...
Florencia Pinar

Florencia Pinar  

(fl. late 15th century)The first female Castilian poet whose works have survived in more than fragmentary form. The great Cancionero general of 1511 is the unique witness to a ...
geology and mineralogy

geology and mineralogy  

Although geology did not exist as a discipline in the MA, there was considerable discussion of the origin of metals and stones, the location of ores, the nature of gemstones ...
Gesta Romanorum

Gesta Romanorum  

A collection of fictitious stories and fables in Latin, probably compiled in England in the late 13th cent.; they have an attached moralization, like the bestiaries and allegories. The popularity of ...
Il Mare amoroso

Il Mare amoroso  

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Literature
A loosely structured love poem of 334 lines, composed in Western Tuscany in the late 13th c., and the earliest known example of unrhymed hendecasyllables. In addition to a conventional ...
Introduction to Italian

Introduction to Italian  

Italian literature has undoubtedly possessed an enduring fascination for English-language readers and writers. Yet the volume of translations has fluctuated greatly from period to period, probably ...
Lapidary

Lapidary  

Lapidaries are catalogues of gems and other analogous substances, in which each name is followed by an exposition of the medicinal value and magical virtues of the “stone”: as such ...
Leo of Vercelli

Leo of Vercelli  

(c.965–1026) Bishop.He supported the politics of German emperors in Italy in his letters and four poems, including Metrum Leonis, a beast fable. See also bestiary; germany; roman empire [carolingian, ...
misericord

misericord  

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The bracket or ‘mercy-seat’ on the underside of the hinged seats in the choir stalls of a church. When turned up the bracket served as a support for the occupant while standing during long services. ...
natural history

natural history  

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History
1 The study of living organisms in their natural habitats.2 The study of all natural phenomena.
pattern book

pattern book  

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Collections of published designs from which builders and craftsmen could copy architectural details. They were largely the means by which Classical architecture, as well as Chinoiserie and the ...
Philippe de Thaon

Philippe de Thaon  

(fl. early 12th century) AN scientific author.Philippe’s best-known work is his Bestiaire (1121×35); between 1113 and 1154 he also produced two lapidaries, an ecclesiastical calendar or comput, and a ...
Phisiologus

Phisiologus  

Physiologus (‘the Naturalist’) a popular compilation from late antiquity. A curious blend of Christian allegory and ancient mystical science, it contains descriptions of animals real and legendary ...
Phoenix

Phoenix  

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Literature
An Old English poem of 677 lines, in the Exeter Book, possibly written in the later 9th cent. It is a beast allegory of the kind found in the bestiaries. The poem is admired for the vividness of its ...
Reynard the Fox

Reynard the Fox  

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Literature
A name for a fox, especially as a proper name in the Roman de Renart, a series of popular satirical fables written in France c.1175–1250, and in other stories.
Richard de Fournival

Richard de Fournival  

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Literature
(b. 1201).Canon and chancellor of Amiens and canon of Rouen, author of both Latin and vernacular texts. In 1246 he was granted the right to practise as a surgeon. ...

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