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Claude Bernard

(1813—1878) French physiologist

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acid–base homeostasis

acid–base homeostasis  

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Overview Page
All living things depend on water. Life consists of a highly complex series of chemical reactions occurring in aqueous media. Among the most important factors in the composition of these ...
animal testing

animal testing  

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Animals have been widely used for many years to test vaccines, pharmaceutical drugs, cosmetics, etc. This is a legal requirement under the US Food and Drugs Act and similar legislation in most other ...
animals in research

animals in research  

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Animals are widely used in the biomedical sciences, for purposes ranging from studying the functions of human and animal bodies and the nature of disease, to toxicological testing to assess ...
Bernardo Alberto Houssay

Bernardo Alberto Houssay  

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(1887–1971), physiologist, experimental endocrinologist, and academic leader.One of the most prominent and influential Latin American scientists of the twentieth century, Houssay was the son of a ...
biochemistry

biochemistry  

The study of the chemistry of living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components (principally proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Biochemistry has ...
body fluids

body fluids  

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A term that includes blood, tears, sweat, serous and mucous secretions from all bodily orifices, saliva, urine, and semen. In clinical usage, the term refers to body fluids that can transmit ...
carbon monoxide

carbon monoxide  

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A colourless almost odourless gas that is very poisonous. When breathed in it combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form carboxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in colour. This compound ...
clinical investigation

clinical investigation  

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Most physicians will agree that ‘clinical investigation’ is the cornerstone of medical progress. However, opinion soon divides when people are asked to define what is meant by the term. Is ...
diabetes mellitus

diabetes mellitus  

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A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which sugars in the body are not oxidized to produce energy due to lack of the pancreatic hormone insulin. The accumulation of sugar leads to its appearance ...
dissection

dissection  

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n. the cutting apart and separation of the body tissues along the natural divisions of the organs and different tissues in the course of an operation. Dissection of corpses is carried out for the ...
Edward Caswall

Edward Caswall  

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Subject:
Religion
(1814–78),hymn-writer. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, he was Perpetual Curate of Stratford-sub-Castle, Wilts, from 1840 to 1847. In 1847 he was received into the RC Church, and in 1850 ...
endocrinology

endocrinology  

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n. the study of the endocrine glands and the substances they secrete (hormones). —endocrinologist n.
endocrinology — history

endocrinology — history  

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In 1855, Claude Bernard discovered that glucose was synthesized in the liver and secreted into the portal vein. He described this secretion as ‘internal’, to distinguish it from bile, the ...
France

France  

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The present medical system is very complex. There are private hospitals or clinics and public hospitals, called university hospitals in towns where a university is situated and regional hospitals in ...
gastroenterology

gastroenterology  

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n. the study of gastrointestinal disease, which includes disease of any part of the digestive tract and also of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.
homeostasis

homeostasis  

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n. the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external ...
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov  

(1849–1936)Russian physiologist, who became professor of physiology in St Petersburg in 1886. While working on the physiology of digestion he discovered that the mere sight of food stimulates the ...
laboratory medicine

laboratory medicine  

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Comprises experimental research and its practical application in patient and population management and the transmission of its findings in medical education. It merits notice, cognitively, because of ...
Le Roman expérimental

Le Roman expérimental  

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Literature
A collection of articles by Zola, published 1880 and containing his essay on the ‘experimental novel’, his most forceful statement of his belief that the methods of the biological sciences ...
life

life  

A state of physical entities that utilize substances derived from outside themselves for the purposes of growth, the repair of their own structure, and the maintenance of their functional systems, ...

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