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Babylonia

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Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus I Soter  

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(c.324–261bc), eldest son of Seleucus I and the Bactrian Apame, crown prince (mār šarri) in Babylonia before he became co-regent with Seleucus I (292–281/0); then held responsibility for the ‘Upper ...
Arabia

Arabia  

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History
A peninsula of SW Asia, largely desert, lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf and bounded on the north by Jordan and Iraq, which is the original homeland of the Arabs and the historic centre ...
Assyria

Assyria  

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Religion
An ancient country in what is now northern Iraq, and which from the early part of the 2nd millennium bc was the centre of a succession of empires; it was at its peak in the 8th and late 7th centuries ...
Baal

Baal  

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Religion
A male fertility god whose cult was widespread in ancient Phoenician and Canaanite lands and was strongly resisted by the Hebrew prophets. The name comes from Hebrew ba῾al ‘lord’.
Babylon

Babylon  

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Religion
An ancient city in Mesopotamia, the capital of Babylonia in the 2nd millennium bc under Hammurabi. The city (of which only ruins now remain) lay on the Euphrates and was noted by Classical writers ...
Berossus

Berossus  

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A priest at Babylon in the 3rd century bc who wrote a history of Babylon which transmitted Babylonian history and astronomy to the Greek world.
books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman  

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Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c.3000 bc. While the ...
Cambyses

Cambyses  

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(d.522 bc),king of Persia 529–522bc, son of Cyrus. He is chiefly remembered for his conquest of Egypt in 525 bc, and as the subject of a play (1569) by Preston which became proverbial for its ...
Cambӯsēs

Cambӯsēs  

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Eldest son of Cyrus (1); acceded on the death of his father (530 bc). He completed his father's grand plan by conquering Egypt, where he was successful in promoting a policy of collaboration with the ...
colonization, Hellenistic

colonization, Hellenistic  

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Plutarch, in his eulogy of Alexander 2 the Great, made the foundation of cities the linchpin of the achievement of Alexander, who wished to spread Greek civilization throughout his realm, and it is ...
Ctesiphon

Ctesiphon  

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On the river Tigris, c. 96 km. (60 mi.) above Babylon, was a village garrisoned by Parthia from c.140 bc as an Asiatic stronghold opposite Hellenistic Seleuceia (1), becoming (from ...
Cyrus

Cyrus  

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Religion
Cyrus (II) “the Great” founded the Persian (Achemenid) empire in 559 BCE and controlled the ancient Near East by the time of his death in 530. “Cyrus” may have been ...
Euphrates

Euphrates  

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Religion
One of four rivers mentioned in Gen. 2: 14 which seems to have acted as the northernmost boundary of Israelite territory under David (2 Sam. 8: 3). Its waters irrigated the area towards the River ...
Hammurabi

Hammurabi  

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Religion
King of Babylon about 1728–1686 bce. He laid out the capital city which included a ziggurat which might have inspired the writer of the story of the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11: 4–9). The Code of ...
Hebrew Kingdoms

Hebrew Kingdoms  

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History
United Monarchy of IsraelKingdom of Judah(Babylonian conquest 587/6 bc)Kingdom of Israel(Assyrian conquest 722 bc)NotesChronology, calendar, and datingFor the chronological problems, see Galil, ch. i ...
Herodotus

Herodotus  

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(5th century bc),Greek historian. Known as ‘the Father of History’. He was the first historian to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent, and arrange them in a ...
irrigation

irrigation  

The process of artificially augmenting the amount of water available to crops. The water may be sprayed directly on to the plants or made available to their root systems through a series of surface ...
Israelite

Israelite  

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Archaeology
[CP]In origin a semi‐nomadic branch of the Semites that developed from the Khabiru‐Hebrews who, according to biblical sources, escaped from Egypt under Moses and established themselves in Palestine ...
Laodicea-Nihavend

Laodicea-Nihavend  

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Inside Media on the fertile Nisaean plain, c.96 km. (60 mi.) from, and on the route to, Ecbatana, this being the trunk-road from Babylonia through Media to Bactria. The site ...
Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia  

An ancient region of south-west Asia in present-day Iraq, lying between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Its alluvial plains were the site of the ancient civilizations of Akkad, Sumer, Babylonia, and ...

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