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al- Azhar

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Egypt

Egypt  

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History
Egypt, the largest Arab country, has made little progress towards democracyEgypt's vast territory consists of two main desert areas separated by the fertile Nile Valley. The western desert occupies ...
Fatimid

Fatimid  

A descendant or Arabian dynasty claiming descent from Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. The Fatimids ruled in parts of North Africa from 908 to 1171, and during some of that period in ...
Mahmud Shaltut

Mahmud Shaltut  

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Religion
(d. 1963)Egyptian religious scholar who worked to reform al-Azhar, reversing its decline and recapturing its previous role as an active participant in Egypt's educational, cultural, and political ...
Mustafa al- Maraghi

Mustafa al- Maraghi  

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Religion
(d. 1945)Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. ...
Revival and Renewal

Revival and Renewal  

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Religion
The Arabic terms ihya (revival) and tajdid (renewal) are typically used in the context of modern Islamic movements, although they have premodern roots. Premodern renewal was usually associated with a ...
Shaykh al- Ṭanṭāwī

Shaykh al- Ṭanṭāwī  

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Religion
Shaykh al-Ṭanṭāwī (b. 1928),whose full name is Shaykh Muḥammad Sayyid Atiyya al-Ṭanṭāwī, is the current shaykh of al-Azhar of Egypt, the highest religious authority for Sunnī Islam not only in Egypt ...
universities

universities  

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History
The first Islamic university, Qarawiyin, was founded in Fez in 859. After that, universities were established across the Muslim world with classical Islamic curricula. In the nineteenth century ...

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