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Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani  

(1934– )Iranian statesman who became president of Iran (1989–97) on the death of Ayatollah Khomeini.Rafsanjani was born near Kerman, the son of a pistachio-nut-farming family of moderate wealth. From ...
ʿAlī Khameneʿi

ʿAlī Khameneʿi  

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ʿAlī Khameneʿi was born in 1939in Mashhad, Iran. His father, Sayyid Javad, was himself a low ranking cleric. The family is ethnically Azari, from Khamenāh. Khameneʿi attended local elementary and ...
Fuqaha

Fuqaha  

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(Arab., pl. of faqih),jurists possessing deep knowledge of fiqh, such as the ayatollahs and ʿulamā of the Muslim world.
Ḥosayn Borujerdi

Ḥosayn Borujerdi  

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Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Borujerdi (also rendered Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʿī Burūjirdī) (1875–1961),was a Shīʿī jurisprudent and seminary director who was the sole marjaʿ al-taqlīd (source of emulation) for all ...
Iran

Iran  

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Conservative forces have retained their grip but the regime has been threatened by widespread protests.Much of Iran consists of a high central plateau ringed by mountains, the highest of which are in ...
Iran hostage crisis

Iran hostage crisis  

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(4 Nov. 1979–20 Jan. 1980)Following the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979, public hostility against the USA, which had heavily sponsored the regime of ...
Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism  

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On the ...
Marja al-Taqlid

Marja al-Taqlid  

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Authority to be followed. Highest-ranking authorities of Twelver Shii community, who execute shariah. The term is usually applied to between four and eight high-ranking jurists (ayatollahs) locally ...
Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi  

(b. 26 Oct. 1919, d. 27 July 1980).Shah of Iran 1941–79 Born in Tehran, he succeeded his deposed father on 17 September 1941, and was subsequently anxious to avoid his predecessor's mistake of having ...
Ruḥ Allah Khumayni

Ruḥ Allah Khumayni  

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(1902–89).Religious leader among Ithna ʿAshariyya (Twelver) Shiʿite Muslims, and figurehead of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. He was born in Khumayn and followed a path of Islamic education in ...
Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini  

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(1900–89)Iranian Shiite Muslim leader. After 16 years in exile he returned to Iran in 1979 to lead an Islamic revolution which overthrew the shah. He established a fundamentalist Islamic republic, ...

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