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avidyā

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abhiniveśa

abhiniveśa  

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According to Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra it is one of the five afflictions (kleśas) that ensure the individual goes on suffering, and is classified as a form of ignorance (avidyā).
Adhyāropa

Adhyāropa  

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(Skt., ‘false covering’).The way in which in Hinduism, illusory or false understandings impose themselves on what is truly the case, which ultimately must be Brahmān. The classic example is ...
Advaita

Advaita  

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Religion
(Sanskrit, non-duality)The doctrine of the Vedantic school associated with Shankara, that asserts the identity of brahman and atman; the empirical world is one of phenomena bene fundata and, like the ...
Advaita Vedānta

Advaita Vedānta  

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One of the major theological cum philosophical schools of the Vedānta darśana, now closely associated with the teachings of Śaṅkara (Śaṅkarācārya). The earliest identifiable Advaita text, the ...
Ajñāna

Ajñāna  

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(Skt.).In Hinduism, the opposite of jñāna, but particularly ignorance of the identity of ātman and Brahman, and thus in consequence equivalent to avidyā.
asmita

asmita  

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Religion
One of the five defilements (kleśas) according to Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra. It denotes the individual's erroneous association with their body, including the contents of their mind (a kind of egoistic ...
Bhāmatī

Bhāmatī  

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A sub-commentary on Śaṅkara's Brahmasūtrabhāṣya by Vācaspati Miśra, synthesizing Śaṅkara's views with those of Maṇḍana Miśra. Subsequently the Bhāmatī gave its name to a school of interpretation ...
bhrānta

bhrānta  

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(Skt., deluded).Term denoting confusion with regards to the true nature of reality, often used as a general synonym for ignorance (avidyā).
bonpu-no-jōshiki

bonpu-no-jōshiki  

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Religion
(Jap., ‘every person's awareness’).According to Zen Buddhism, ordinary, everyday consciousness, which is fraught with delusion (mayoi)—as opposed to the enlightened mind.
Buddha

Buddha  

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A title given to the founder of Buddhism, Siddartha Gautama (c. 563–c. 460 bc). Born an Indian prince in what is now Nepal, he renounced wealth and family to become an ascetic, and after achieving ...
caitta

caitta  

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(Skt.). Term in Buddhist psychology (being a later form of caitasika) denoting derivative mental states or functions of the mind (citta). Lists of these, derived from the sūtras and differing in ...
daśabala

daśabala  

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Religion
(Skt., ten powers).The ten powers of a tathāgata consisting of knowledge relating to: (1) what is and is not possible in any situation; (2) the ripening (vipāka) of deeds and the maturation of karma; ...
delusion

delusion  

A false belief that is not changed by reasoned argument. Delusions are a feature of some serious mental disorders, notably paranoia and schizophrenia. See also hallucination.
evil

evil  

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Religion
Buddhism has no concept of evil as a cosmic force or objective reality. The nearest it comes to this is the mythological figure of Māra.the Buddhist ‘devil’. However, it has much to say about evil in ...
guṇa

guṇa  

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Religion
1 At its most general, a quality or even a virtue. This sense is perhaps related to the more specific Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika view of guṇas as the perceivable attributes which indicate the existence of a ...
karma

karma  

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Religion
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences. The word comes from Sanskrit karman ‘action, ...
kleśa

kleśa  

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Religion
According to Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra, five defilements or impurities (avidyā—ignorance, asmitā—‘I-am-ness’, rāga—attachment, dveṣa—aversion, abhiniveṣa—fear of extinction), which both give rise to and ...
knowledge

knowledge  

Knowledge is power proverbial saying, late 16th century; originally from the English lawyer and courtier Francis Bacon (1561–1626), and echoing the biblical ‘a man of knowledge increaseth strength ...
lotus

lotus  

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Religion
The sacred lotus of India and China, Nelumbium nuciferum syn. Nelumbo nucifera, a water plant whose rhizomes and seeds are eaten. A 100‐g portion of the rhizome is a rich source of vitamin C, and ...
Madhyamaka

Madhyamaka  

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Religion
(Skt.). The ‘Middle School’, a system of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nāgārjuna in the 2nd century ce which has been extremely influential within the Mahāyāna tradition of Buddhism (a follower of ...

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