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authoritarianism

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absolutism

absolutism  

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Overview Page
A state-form typical of societies in the process of transition from feudalism to capitalism and in which power is concentrated in the person of a monarch, who has at his or her disposal a centralized ...
Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat  

Born to a modest peasant family, Anwar Sadat (1918–1981) rose through the army to play a prominent part in Egyptian political life, first as a key figure in the anti-British ...
Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at ...
Argentina

Argentina  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
Painful economic reforms have stimulated rapid economic growth, but economic and social stability remain elusiveTo the west, Argentina is bounded by the southernmost section of the Andes, but most of ...
A-S scale

A-S scale  

A scale to measure anti-Semitism (prejudice against or hostility to Jews), especially the scale first published by the German philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno ...
Augusto Pinochet

Augusto Pinochet  

(1915–2006)Chilean soldier who overthrew Salvador Allende to become president of Chile (1973–89).Pinochet was born in Chile and educated at the Military Academy School of Infantry, having joined the ...
autocracy

autocracy  

A regime in which power is concentrated in the person of a single individual—as, for example, in the case of ‘the Stalinist autocracy’. The term is thus loosely applied, and will be found in ...
Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini  

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(1883–1945) Italian Fascist statesman, Prime Minister (1922–43); known as Il Duce ('the leader'). He founded the Italian Fascist Party in 1919. He annexed Abyssinia in 1936 and entered World War ...
Brazil

Brazil  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
Destined by size to be the leading country of South America, Brazil is only just starting to realize its potentialBrazil's huge landmass occupies almost half the continent of South America. ...
Bureaucratic Authoritarianism

Bureaucratic Authoritarianism  

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Overview Page
The concept of bureaucratic authoritarianism arose from the study of major episodes of authoritarian rule in South America between the 1960s and the 1980s: Brazil from 1964 to 1985, Argentina ...
Carl Schmitt

Carl Schmitt  

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Overview Page
(1888–1985)German political theorist. Schmitt was influential as a conservative or reactionary critic of liberalism, and enthusiast for conflict and antagonism as perennial conditions of politics. A ...
Comparative Politics

Comparative Politics  

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Overview Page
The term comparative politics refers to both a subject matter and a method of analysis. In principle, the two should complement each other; in practice, they frequently do not.As ...
corporatism

corporatism  

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Overview Page
A concept of a political economic system in which economic decisions are achieved through negotiation between centralized corporate bodies representing interest groups. In particular, under ...
coup d'état

coup d'état  

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Overview Page
A violent and immediate seizure of state power, usually by armed forces, and with the implication of being undemocratic and unconstitutional. Successful examples occurred in Greece in 1967, Chile in ...
Democratic Transitions

Democratic Transitions  

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Overview Page
The democratic transitions of the 1980s replicated processes that had occurred in more isolated fashion in earlier decades. Indeed, Dankwart Rustow's seminal 1970 article Transitions to Democracy: ...
dictatorship

dictatorship  

In modern usage, absolute rule unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other political or social factors within the state. The original dictators, however, were magistrates in ancient Italian cities ...
E scale

E scale  

A scale to measure ethnocentrism, especially the scale first published by the German philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno (1903–69) and several colleagues in the ...
ethnocentrism

ethnocentrism  

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Overview Page
Belief, often unconscious, in the superiority of one's own ethnic group or the universality of one's own culture-bound practices and preferences. In a global economy, such assumptions may be ...
F scale

F scale  

A questionnaire to measure authoritarianism, first published by the German philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno (1903–69) and several colleagues in the book The ...
Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1892–1975)Spanish general, statesman, and dictator (1939–75).Born in Galicia, the son of a naval paymaster, Franco was educated at the Toledo Infantry Academy before entering the army in 1910. ...

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