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Kemal Atatürk

(1881—1938) Turkish general and statesman, President 1923–38

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Adnan Menderes

Adnan Menderes  

(b. 1899, d. 17 Sept. 1961).Prime Minister of Turkey 1950–60 Born in Aydin (Izmir), he practised as a lawyer until 1932, when he became a representative for the Republican People's Party in the Grand ...
Ankara

Ankara  

[Gr. and Lat. Ancyra; Mod. Gr. Angora].Capital city of the Turkish Republic since 1923 and a center of trade and administration since antiquity. Ankara lies near the northern edge ...
Congresses

Congresses  

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Religion
Islamic congresses were proposed by late-nineteenth-century Muslim reformists to promote internal reform of Islam and resist Western imperialism. The dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire and abolition ...
Constantinople Agreement

Constantinople Agreement  

(Mar.–Apr. 1915)A number of secret assurances given by Britain and France. In their concern to prevent Russia from concluding a separate peace with Germany, they promised that Constantinople and the ...
coup d'état

coup d'état  

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A violent and immediate seizure of state power, usually by armed forces, and with the implication of being undemocratic and unconstitutional. Successful examples occurred in Greece in 1967, Chile in ...
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi

Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi  

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Religion
A major political organization in Turkey for sixty years, the Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican Peopleʾs Party or CHP) was founded some weeks before the proclamation of the Republic (September 11 ...
dervish

dervish  

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Persian. Also spelled darwish. Poor or mendicant. Refers to ascetic Sufis who wear rough wool clothing as a reflection of their rejection of material luxuries and dedicate themselves to a life of ...
Eleuthérios Venizélos

Eleuthérios Venizélos  

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History
(1864–1936)Greek statesman. Active in the anti-Turkish movement of (1895–1905), he became Premier (1910), modernizing Greek political institutions and joining the Balkan League against Turkey. In ...
Gallipoli

Gallipoli  

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A major campaign of the First World War which took place on the Gallipoli peninsula, on the European side of the Dardanelles, in 1915–16.In early 1915, after a naval attempt to force the Dardanelles ...
Graeco-Turkish wars

Graeco-Turkish wars  

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(1897, 1921–2),two wars between the Greeks and the Ottoman Turks, both of which resulted in Greek defeat. The first, also known as the Thirty Days War, was a result ...
Greece

Greece  

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Greece has seen considerable benefits from EU membership but has now fallen deep into debtMost of Greece is mountainous. The mainland is dominated by the rugged Pindus Mountains, which extend from ...
Ḥukūmah

Ḥukūmah  

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Religion
Government, commonly distinguished from dawlah (state). Understood as the group of individuals who exercise the authority of the state; the term was adopted as Muslims became increasingly interested ...
Ismet Inönü

Ismet Inönü  

(b. 14 Sept. 1884, d. 25 Dec. 1973).Prime Minister of Turkey 1923–4, 1925–37, 1961–5; President of Turkey 1938–50 Born Mustafa Ismet in Izmir, he was commissioned into the Ottoman army in 1903. ...
Istanbul

Istanbul  

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A great historic city, port, and the former capital (until 1923) of Turkey, situated on the Bosporus and partly in Europe, partly in Asia. Istanbul was founded c.660 bc by Dorian Greeks. Known as ...
Kemalism

Kemalism  

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Principles of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (d. 1938), founder and first president of the Turkish republic. Constitutes the official state ideology and went publicly unchallenged until the 1980s. Its major ...
Khilafat Movement

Khilafat Movement  

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Religion
An Indian Muslim movement. It aimed to rouse public opinion against the harsh treatment accorded to the Ottoman empire after World War I and specifically against the treatment of the Ottoman sultan ...
Kurdistan

Kurdistan  

OverviewA state for the Kurdish nation which has not yet been established. The Kurds inhabit the border region of Turkey (around eleven million people, or 20 per cent of the population), Iran (around ...
Mahmud Jelâl Bayar

Mahmud Jelâl Bayar  

(b. 16 May 1884, d. 21 Aug. 1986).President of Turkey 1950–60 Born in Umurbey, he took up work in a bank and other employment. He joined the Young Turk movement in 1907, and in 1919 the resistance ...
Medina Charter

Medina Charter  

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Religion
The Medina Charter (Mithaq al-Madina) was a contract signed between Muslims and the Jewish tribes of Medina (Yathrib), specifying the rights and responsibilities of the tribes or religious groups who ...
Modernism

Modernism  

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Philosophy
Islamic modernism—the reform of Islamic tradition through emphasis on the Quran and Sunnah to meet the needs of modern society, including its institutions and technology—arose in the nineteenth ...

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