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California

California  

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 Native Americans inhabited the area now know as California before Spanish explorers arrived in search of wealth. On September 28, 1542, an expedition led ...
Chinatowns

Chinatowns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Chinatowns—immigrant enclaves mingling residential, commercial, cultural, and religious functions and often situated near central commercial and government districts—emerged centuries ago with ...
Chinese Exclusion Cases

Chinese Exclusion Cases  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A series of disputes settled by the Supreme Court during the 1880s and 1890s: Chew Heong v. United States, 112 U.S. 536 (1884), argued 30 Oct. 1884, decided 8 Dec. 1884 by vote of 7 to 2, Harlan for ...
Chinese Overseas

Chinese Overseas  

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Overview Page
Migration both within and out of China since the eighteenth century has been channeled through a variety of common institutions that include occupational and merchant guilds (huiguan), mutual aid ...
Collis P. Huntington

Collis P. Huntington  

(1821–1900), railroad entrepreneur.Born in Connecticut, Collis P. Huntington, after an early business career in New York City, moved to Sacramento, California, during the 1849 Gold Rush and started a ...
equality

equality  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The state of being equal. In sociology, equality is viewed mainly in a social context and the lack of equality is regarded as being profoundly shaped by social structures.
Fifteenth Amendment

Fifteenth Amendment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1870).This amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that the right to vote shall not be denied or restricted by the federal or state governments on account of race. The ...
folk art

folk art  

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Overview Page
The art, handicrafts, and decorative ornament produced by people who have had no formal art training but have an established tradition of styles and craftsmanship. A country or region may have a ...
immigrant

immigrant  

A person who migrates to and settles in a country other than that of birthplace and upbringing. Immigrants often differ culturally and sometimes in health-related behavior from persons born and ...
Immigrant Labor

Immigrant Labor  

At least since the 1840s, when Irish American workers replaced the native-born “factory girls” of Lowell, Massachusetts, immigrants have loomed large in the American working classes. This was ...
immigration legislation

immigration legislation  

(New Zealand)New Zealand had an estimated population of around 1400,000 Maori people, and 2,000 Whites, in 1839. Immigration began in the 1840s as companies and settlers sought to make the country a ...
Incarceration of Japanese Americans.

Incarceration of Japanese Americans.  

The forced removal from the West Coast in the Spring and Summer of 1942 of nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans, more than two-thirds of them native-born U.S. citizens, and their subsequent ...
Korematsu v. United States

Korematsu v. United States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 323 U.S. 214 (1944)• Vote: 6–3• For the Court: Black• Concurring: Frankfurter• Dissenting: Roberts, Murphy, and Jackson• 323 U.S. 214 (1944)• Vote: 6–3• For the Court: Black[...]
Los Angeles

Los Angeles  

Reference type:
Overview Page
For many years the city played second fiddle to its northern rival San Francisco, although it was a good legitimate theatre town with such people as Oliver Morosco running theatres ...
nativism

nativism  

In sociological contexts, this term is used most commonly to refer to the negative, ethnocentric responses of native-born populations towards immigrants. The classic study of such responses is John ...
San Francisco

San Francisco  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Situated on one of the world's largest bays, on the central California coast, had a population in 1990 of approximately 750,000. The bay may have been sighted by Drake (1579) ...
West, The.

West, The.  

The American West is both a place and a state of mind, and the two are not easily disentangled, since no agreement exists about either its geographic boundaries or its ...
Women in the Labor Force

Women in the Labor Force  

The history of women in the American labor force has been shaped by diverse cultural, legal, demographic, and ethno-racial influences. Like men, women in preindustrial America contributed to their ...
Working-Class Life and Culture.

Working-Class Life and Culture.  

In his landmark study Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (1976), historian Herbert Gutman drew upon the work of anthropologist Sidney Mintz to define working-class culture as a ...

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