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abacus

abacus  

An ancient device for performing arithmetic calculations by sliding beads along rods or in grooves. Despite the spread of electronic calculators and computers, the abacus is still widely used in the ...
abduction

abduction  

An inference process widely used in artificial intelligence, particularly in expert systems and rule-based systems. In diagnosis, for example, there may be a rule like “if measles then red spots” so ...
action selection

action selection  

The decision problem of choosing between several competing goals, when each has conflicting characteristics, time is limited, and the environment is dynamic. Action selection, which is a topic in ...
Alan Turing

Alan Turing  

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(1912–1954)British mathematician, who introduced the concept of the Turing machine.Born in London, he was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1936. In the ...
algorithm

algorithm  

A documented series of steps which leads to the transformation of some data. For example, in order to calculate the sum of a series of numbers a possible algorithm would involve repeatedly adding the ...
artificial life

artificial life  

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While processes of selforganization, reproduction, learning, adaptation and evolution are in nature confined to the biological sphere, they can be duplicated in principle in computer simulations, ...
behavior-based systems

behavior-based systems  

An alternative approach to symbolic artificial intelligence, whereby autonomous agents are designed to be driven by goal-seeking processes, called behaviors, implemented in low-level reactive ...
belief

belief  

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Any proposition (1) that is accepted as true on the basis of inconclusive evidence. A belief is stronger than a baseless opinion but not as strong as an item of knowledge. More generally, belief is ...
case grammar

case grammar  

A theory of grammar, originally devised by Charles Filmore within the general orientation of generative grammar, that regards deep cases as the grammatical primitives in terms of which sentences are ...
case-based reasoning

case-based reasoning  

A technique from artificial intelligence that attempts to solve new problems by using past experience. The main task involves matching problem details against a library of previous cases. The cases ...
causal reasoning

causal reasoning  

A form of reasoning that is used in artificial intelligence and is based on a causal model of the problem. A causal model attempts to represent the underlying principles in the domain or device being ...
Chinese room

Chinese room  

A Gedankenexperiment first proposed by the US philosopher John Searle (born 1932) in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences in 1980 as a refutation of the strong AI proposition that a computer ...
classifier systems

classifier systems  

Programs in artificial intelligence that partition sets of data into different classifications on the basis of specified features in the data. Techniques from machine learning are used when the ...
closed-world assumption

closed-world assumption  

An approach for dealing with incompleteness in artificial intelligence. In a logic knowledge base, all facts are taken to be either true or false. Any items that have unknown truth values cannot be ...
cognition

cognition  

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Cognitive processes are those responsible for knowledge and awareness. They include the processing of experience, perception, and memory, as well as overtly verbal thinking.
cognitive neuropsychology

cognitive neuropsychology  

The study of deficits or impairments in human cognitive function resulting from brain damage. Alongside cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, it is one of the three main approaches to ...
cognitive science

cognitive science  

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Subject:
Linguistics
The scientific study of processes of awareness, thought, and mental organization, often by means of computer modelling or artificial intelligence research.
combinatorial explosion

combinatorial explosion  

The exponential growth rate experienced in many search problems. For example, in the game of chess the number of choices at each level increases by the branching factor, which may typically multiply ...
common-sense reasoning

common-sense reasoning  

Most reasoning in artificial intelligence concerns higher-level functions, such as game playing, language processing, and symbolic problem solving. Common-sense reasoning is concerned with the ...
computational creativity

computational creativity  

A subfield of artificial intelligence that covers the computational study of the creative mind and the construction of systems that exhibit creative behavior. Topics covered include all forms of ...

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