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Archimedes

(c. 287—212 bc) Greek mathematician and inventor, of Syracuse

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Apollonius of Perga

Apollonius of Perga  

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(c.262 bc–c.190 bc) Greek mathematicianApollonius moved from his birthplace Perga (now in Turkey) to study in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, possibly under pupils of Euclid. Later he taught in ...
Archimedes' principle

Archimedes' principle  

The weight of the liquid displaced by a floating body is equal to the weight of the body. The principle was not in fact stated by Archimedes, though it has some connection with his discoveries. The ...
artillery

artillery  

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N. pl. -ies1 large-caliber guns used in warfare on land: tanks and heavy artillery | artillery shells.2 a military detachment or branch of the armed forces that uses such guns: two regiments of field ...
astronomical instruments

astronomical instruments  

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Although the introduction of an astronomical instrument (the gnomon, an upright stick for measuring shadow-lengths) is credited to Anaximander in the 6th cent. bc, reliable information on the form of ...
Bryson

Bryson  

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(early 4th c. bc)Greek sophist criticized by Aristotle for a mathematical construction that may have been perfectly sound, closing in on the area of a circle by considering it as lying between the ...
Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris  

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(perhaps c.ad 400),a Latin didactic poem in 208 hexameter verses, once ascribed to Priscian, but now attributed to one Rem(m)ius Favinus (or Flav[in]us), sets out the several systems of ...
catoptrics

catoptrics  

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A special field of optics, is properly the geometric theory of the visual appearances of objects seen under reflection (anaklasis), but among the ancients also includes studies of refraction ...
Conon

Conon  

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Of Samos (first half of 3rd cent. bc), mathematician and astronomer. After observing star‐risings and weather phenomena in Italy and Sicily, he became famous by his identification (c.245 bc) of a ...
Diocles

Diocles  

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(RE 55)mathematician (c.200 bc), wrote Περὶ πυρείων (‘On Burning-Mirrors’), preserved in Arabic translation. This treats both spherical and parabolic mirrors (giving the first proof of the focal ...
Dositheus

Dositheus  

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Of Pelusium (fl. c.230 bc), pupil of the astronomer Conon (2). He continued a connection between the Alexandrian astronomers and Archimedes which had begun with the latter's studies in Alexandria ...
Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes  

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(c.276–c.194 bc)Greekwriter on many subjects, born in modern Libya. He made the first known calculation of the Earth's circumference that was based on a scientifically sound method. According to ...
Eutokios

Eutokios  

(Εὑτόκιος), commentator on mathematical works; born Ascalon ca.480.A contemporary of Ammonios and Anthemios of Tralles, Eutokios was active in Alexandria and perhaps Constantinople in the early 6th ...
Federico Commandino

Federico Commandino  

(1509–75),Italian humanist, mathematician, and physician, born into a noble family in Urbino. He was taught Latin and Greek by a humanist at Fano before, in 1534, going to the ...
fluid mechanics

fluid mechanics  

A branch of mechanics concerned with the forces that fluids exert on objects that are in or moving through the fluids. The fluids most relevant to exercise and sport biomechanics are air and water.
geometry

geometry  

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The branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional analogues; in the Middle Ages, one of the subjects of the quadrivium.
Girolamo Cardano

Girolamo Cardano  

(1501–76)Italian physician and mathematician, whose Ars magna contained the first published solutions of the general cubic equation and the general quartic equation. Even though these were due to ...
Heraclides Lembus

Heraclides Lembus  

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(2nd cent. bc),statesman, historian, and amateur scholar living in Alexandria (1), excerpter and epitomizer of earlier works. We have 76 fragments from his excerpts of Aristotle's Politeiai ...
Hieron II

Hieron II  

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Tyrant, later king, of Syracuse (c.271–216bc); claimed, without grounds, descent from Gelon. Between 275 and 271, Hieron was elected general, seized power as the result of a military coup, allied ...
hydrostatics

hydrostatics  

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The study of liquids at rest, with special reference to storage tanks, dams, bulkheads, and hydraulic machinery.
Isidore of Miletus

Isidore of Miletus  

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(fl. C6).Greek architect, engineer, geometer, and universal man, he worked with Anthemios of Tralles on the design and construction of the great Byzantine Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), ...

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