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academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
Accademia Pontaniana

Accademia Pontaniana  

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Originally an informal meeting of intellectuals and civil servants in the Naples of King Alfonso I of Aragon, organized by Panormita in the 1440s. The formal title of Accademia Pontaniana ...
Acquaviva D'aragona

Acquaviva D'aragona  

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One of the most powerful baronial families in Naples. Andrea Matteo (1458–1529), Duke of Atri, and Belisario (1464–1528), Duke of Nardo, were warlords and writers (tutored by Pontano) who played ...
Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath  

(c.1070–c.1145)English Benedictine remembered as a conduit for the introduction of Arabic astronomy and philosophy to the West.
Afonso IV, king of Portugal

Afonso IV, king of Portugal  

(1291–1357; r. 1325–57)Only son of Dinis I and Isabel, daughter of Pedro III of Aragon. In 1309, he married Beatriz, daughter of Sancho IV of Castile. He rebelled against ...
Aigues-Mortes

Aigues-Mortes  

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*Louis IX of France chose this fishing village in the marshes of the Rhône delta in 1240 to be the port of departure for his crusades, since the southern French ...
al-Andalus

al-Andalus  

Arabic name given to the geographical area of the Iberian Peninsula that came under Muslim control in the MA, from 711 to 1492. This period is often referred to as ...
Alexander II, Pope

Alexander II, Pope  

(c.1010/1015–1073)Anselmo da Baggio, the son of a leading Milanese family, was educated from his youth at Milan cathedral. In 1056, thanks to the support of the Emperor Henry III ...
Alfonso I of Aragon

Alfonso I of Aragon  

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(El Batallador [The Battler], c. 1073–1134),king of Aragon and Navarre (r. 1104–1134). The son of Sancho I Ramírez of Aragon (r. 1063–1094) by his second wife, Alfonso eventually succeeded ...
Alfonso V of Aragon

Alfonso V of Aragon  

(1396–1458)Eldest son of Fernando de Antequera (Fernando I, 1414–16) and Leonor of Albuquerque, Alfonso was a Castilian prince of the Trastámara family who acceded to the Crown of Aragon ...
Alfonso VII of Castile-León

Alfonso VII of Castile-León  

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(c.1104–1157)Son of Queen Urraca and Raymond of Burgundy, king of Castile-León 1126–1157. Emulating his grandfather Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII used the title ‘emperor of all Spain’, putting him at ...
Algarve

Algarve  

Southernmost region of present-day Portugal, stretching from the mouth of the Guadiana river in the east to Cape St Vincent in the west. Its history reaches back to antiquity. Its ...
Álvaro de Luna

Álvaro de Luna  

(1388–1453),Spanish soldier, statesman, and poet, the illegitimate son of an Aragonese nobleman. In 1420 he entered the service of King John II (Juan II) of Castile, who three years ...
Angevins of Naples

Angevins of Naples  

The Angevins of Naples, princes of French royal blood, were two successive families from Anjou, who ruled the kingdom of Naples in the late Middle Ages. It officially kept the ...
Anjou

Anjou  

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French dynasty implanted in Italy by Charles I (1227–85), youngest son of Louis VIII. Supporting papal claims against the Hohenstaufen [see frederick ii], Charles defeated Manfredi at Benevento ...
anthology

anthology  

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A published collection of poems or other pieces of writing; a similar collection of songs or musical compositions issued in one album. The word comes, in the mid 17th century, via French or medieval ...
Arnold of Villanova

Arnold of Villanova  

(c.1240–1311)His date and place of birth are unknown, but Arnaldus de Villa Nova called himself a Catalan and from boyhood he lived at Valencia, in the territories recently reconquered ...
Balearics

Balearics  

The Mediterranean archipelago of the Balearics owes its name to the Greeks, while its islands, Maiorica (Majorca), Minorica (Minorca) and Ebussus (Ibiza), owe theirs to the Romans and Carthaginians. ...
Barbastro Crusade

Barbastro Crusade  

(1064)Robert Crispin of Normandy, William duke of Aquitaine, and Count Ermengol III of Urgell led a combined Christian army of Burgundian, Norman, Aquitanian, Italian, Catalan, and Aragonese troops ...
Barcelona

Barcelona  

The Iberian tribe of the Laetani were the earliest known population of the site of Barcelona. In the 3rd c. BC, the Carthaginians founded Barcino there, perhaps named from the ...

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