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Arab Nationalism

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Abd al-Aziz al- Duri

Abd al-Aziz al- Duri  

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(b. 1919)Iraqi educator and Arabist social historian. Focuses on Arab nationalism and identity as a cultural and linguistic matter rather than an ethnic, regional, or religious issue. Considers Islam ...
Abd al-Rahman al- Kawakibi

Abd al-Rahman al- Kawakibi  

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(d. 1902)Also known as al-Sayyid al-Furati and Traveler K. Syrian Islamic revivalist and advocate of Arab caliphate. Influenced by reform ideas of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (d. 1897) and Muhammad Abduh ...
Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri

Abu Khaldun Sati al- Husri  

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(d. 1968)Ottoman ideologist, educational reformer, secular Arab nationalist, and pan-Arabist. Saw secular educational reform as a means of instilling patriotism in youth. Developed a theory of Arab ...
al-Ḥājj Amīn al- Ḥusaynī

al-Ḥājj Amīn al- Ḥusaynī  

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Al-ḥājj Amīn al-Ḥusaynī (1895–1974)was a muftī of Jerusalem and a nationalist leader during the period of British rule over Palestine (1917–1948). Al-Ḥājj Amīn al-Ḥusaynī came from an aristocratic ...
Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat  

Born to a modest peasant family, Anwar Sadat (1918–1981) rose through the army to play a prominent part in Egyptian political life, first as a key figure in the anti-British ...
Arab League

Arab League  

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An organization of Arab states, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 1945. The principal aims of the League are to protect the independence and sovereignty of its members and to strengthen the ties between ...
Arab Socialism

Arab Socialism  

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Religion
In the Arab context, defined as state-sponsored economic development, as manifested in Nasserism and Baathism as state ideologies of Egypt in the 1950s and 1960s and of Iraq and Syria from the 1960s ...
Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict  

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Religion
Ongoing conflict between Arabs and Israel over Palestinian territory. The origins of the conflict lie in the Balfour Declaration (1917), which promised “a national home for the Jewish people,” and in ...
Asabiyyah

Asabiyyah  

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Religion
Social solidarity with an emphasis on group consciousness, cohesiveness, and unity. Familiar in the pre-Islamic era, the term became popularized in Ibn Khaldun's (d. 1406) Muqaddimah. Asabiyyah is ...
Balfour Declaration

Balfour Declaration  

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(2 November 1917)A declaration by Britain in favour of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It took the form of a letter from Lord Balfour (British Foreign Secretary) to Lord Rothschild, a prominent ...
Baʿth Parties

Baʿth Parties  

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The Arab Socialist Baʿth Party was founded in Syria in the early 1940s by a group led by two Damascene teachers, Michel ʿAflaq (Greek Orthodox by origin) and Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ...
David Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion  

(b. 16 Oct. 1886, d. 1 Dec. 1973).Prime Minister of Israel 1948–53, 1955–63 Born David Gruen at Plonsk, in Russian Poland, he became a Zionist and emigrated to Palestine in 1906. He became active in ...
Eisenhower Doctrine

Eisenhower Doctrine  

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A statement of US foreign policy issued by President Eisenhower after the Suez War and approved by Congress in 1957. It proposed to offer economic aid and military advice to governments in the Middle ...
Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser  

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(1918–70)Egyptian colonel and statesman, Prime Minister (1954–56) and President (1956–70). He was the leader of a successful military coup to depose King Farouk in 1952, after which a republic was ...
Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī (c. 1853–1931)

Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī (c. 1853–1931)  

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Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī (c.1853–1931),was an amīr and sharīf of Mecca and leader of the Arab revolt against the Ottomans in World War I. Ḥusayn, of the ʿAwn branch of the ...
Jamal al-Din al- Afghani

Jamal al-Din al- Afghani  

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(d. 1897)Thinker and political activist. Born and raised in Iran, although claimed to be of Afghan origin. Educated in Iran and Iraq. Traveled to India, where he came into contact with British ...
jihad

jihad  

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Religion
A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam.
Jordan

Jordan  

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Jordan's King Abdullah has started to establish a more stable democracyJordan has three main zones. First, there is the Jordan Valley region, which lies to the east of the Jordan river and finishes ...
Kamal Jumblatt

Kamal Jumblatt  

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Kamal Jumblatt (Kamāl Junblāṭ, 1917–1977)was a Lebanesepolitician, traditional Druze chieftain, leader and ideologue of the Left. Born in the mountain village of al-Mukhtārah, Jumblatt attended the ...
Kurdistan

Kurdistan  

OverviewA state for the Kurdish nation which has not yet been established. The Kurds inhabit the border region of Turkey (around eleven million people, or 20 per cent of the population), Iran (around ...

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