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Adhemar of Chabannes

Adhemar of Chabannes  

(989–1034) Monk, chronicler, composer of liturgical music, and forger.More of his autograph MSS survive than for any other author from the early MA. He is best known for his ...
Angevin

Angevin  

Any of the Plantagenet kings of England, especially those who were also counts of Anjou (Henry II, Richard I, and John), descended from Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. The name comes via French from ...
Angoulême

Angoulême  

City on the Charente river. The see was founded in the 4th century, but the first known bishop was St Cybard (d. 581), who gave his name to the city’s ...
Auvergne

Auvergne  

French region, among the first in the country to develop papermaking; a mill reputedly founded there in 1326 still operates as a working museum.
Barcelona

Barcelona  

The Iberian tribe of the Laetani were the earliest known population of the site of Barcelona. In the 3rd c. BC, the Carthaginians founded Barcino there, perhaps named from the ...
Basque

Basque  

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History
A member of an ethnic group inhabiting the western Pyrenees on both sides of the French-Spanish border; this region in known as the Basque Country. The Basques possess a distinctive culture and ...
Béarn

Béarn  

Region in the Pyrenees; first mentioned as a viscountcy in the Treaty of Verdun (843), opposite the county of Bigorre (both bishoprics). The first parliament (Cour Major) appeared in 1080. ...
Berno of Cluny

Berno of Cluny  

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Abbot (d. 927).The founder of the largest and most influential abbey in western Europe is little known, partly because his five successors ruled for longer than he did and all were deservedly ...
Bordeaux

Bordeaux  

City on the Garonne river in southwestern France; from Roman times, it was a trading port actively connected to Spain and Britain. In 1154 the duchy of Bordeaux, then controlled ...
Braga

Braga  

Braga played a preeminent religious role in the early history of Portugal: the activities of St Martin in the 6th c. and the reformer Fructuosus in the 7th were essential. ...
captals of Buch

captals of Buch  

The title of 18 successive lords and three ladies (1274–1793) of La Teste de Buch, the castle dominating the entrance of the Bassin d’Arcachon (Gironde). The most notable was Jean ...
Carcassonne

Carcassonne  

City dominating the Aude between Narbonne and Toulouse. A Roman colony later fortified by a 4th-century Visigothic fortress, then by Arabs (after 725). Bishopric established c.570. After Frankish ...
Carolingians

Carolingians  

The Carolingian family left its direct mark on history from the early 7th c. until 987. In a first stage, it had acquired the political responsibilities that gradually made it ...
Charlemagne

Charlemagne  

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(Latin Carolus Magnus, Charles the Great) (742–814) King of the Franks (768–814) and Holy Roman emperor (as Charles I) (800–14). He created an empire by conquering and Christianizing the Saxons ...
Charles Martel

Charles Martel  

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(c. 688–741)(French, martel, ‘hammer’) Frankish leader. He was the son of Pepin II, ‘mayor of the palace’ under Merovingian rule. He gained control of the Austrasian province and defeated the ...
Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald  

[Na]Frankish leader, born ad 823, youngest son of Louis the Pious. King of the West Franks who outlived his brothers and many of their heirs to become emperor in ad 875. He died in ad 877.
Claudius

Claudius  

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Religion
(d. after 827), Bp. of Turin from c.817. He made a series of attacks on image-worship, relics, the adoration of the Cross, and every visible sign of Christ's life, as well as on pilgrimages and the ...
Cluniacs

Cluniacs  

[Ge]A Roman Catholic monastic order established in ad 910 of which the abbey of Cluny near Maçon, France, was the parent house. All the daughter houses spread across Europe owed allegiance to Cluny. ...
Cluny

Cluny  

A Benedictine monastery in eastern France, founded in 910 and introducing a period of monastic reform based on strict observance of the Benedictine Rule; the abbey was subject only to the pope, and ...
Communication Routes

Communication Routes  

Up to the 7th c., the West's system of communications remained, in its main orientations as well as its structures, indebted to the Roman inheritance. From the Ports of the ...

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