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Alps

Alps  

Of Celtic origin, the word “Alps” means “high summit”, “rock”, and designates the largest and highest of the European mountain ranges, extending in the form of an arc 1000 kilometres ...
Amycus

Amycus  

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In mythology, king of the Bebryces, a savage people of Bithynia. He was of gigantic strength and compelled all comers to the land to box with him, the loser to ...
Antimachus

Antimachus  

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Of Colophon in western Asia Minor, Greek poet and scholar (fl. 400 bc). He may have been taught by Stesimbrotus of Thasos; Plutarch, Lys. 18. 8 says he competed at the Lysandreia festival in Samos in ...
Argonauts

Argonauts  

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In Greek legend a band of 50 heroes who undertook a sea expedition to bring back the Golden Fleece from Colchis on the farther shore of the Euxine (Black) Sea. It was led by Jason, who had the task ...
books, Greek and Roman

books, Greek and Roman  

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Books existed in Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and Mesopotamia by c.3000 bc. While the ...
books, poetic

books, poetic  

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The accelerated rise of the book-roll in the 4th and 3rd cents. bc has artistic consequences which are first strongly felt in the Alexandrian Library. The scholar-poets who classify and ...
botany

botany  

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The scientific study of plants, including their anatomy, morphology, physiology, biochemistry, taxonomy, cytology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and geographical distribution.
Callimachus

Callimachus  

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Of Cyrene, Greek poet and scholar. He flourished under Ptolemy 1 II (285–246bc) and continued into the reign of Ptolemy III. He was credited with more than 800 books, but, apart from six hymns and ...
Circe

Circe  

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Religion
In Greek mythology, an enchantress who lived with her wild animals on the island of Aeaea. When Odysseus visited the island his companions were changed into pigs by her potions, but he protected ...
Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Encyclopedias and Dictionaries  

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We can hardly avoid grouping together these two categories of reference works because the distinction between them was only worked out after the fact, as ancient scholarship evolved. For our ...
epic

epic  

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Literature
A long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the past history of a nation. The word comes via Latin from Greek ...
Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes  

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(c.276–c.194 bc)Greekwriter on many subjects, born in modern Libya. He made the first known calculation of the Earth's circumference that was based on a scientifically sound method. According to ...
Greek Poetry

Greek Poetry  

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[This entry includes thirteen subentries: Overview to 1 bceOverview from 1 ceDidactic PoetryEpicPost-Classical Greek EpicChoral LyricLyricPastoralEpinician PoetryElegiac PoetryEpigramsThe Iambic ...
harpy

harpy  

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In Greek and Roman mythology, a rapacious monster described as having a woman's head and body and a bird's wings and claws or (as in Virgil's Aeneid) depicted as a bird of prey with a woman's face; ...
Idaean Dactyls

Idaean Dactyls  

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(Δάκτυλοι Ἰδαι̑οι), the Fingers of Mt. Ida in Phrygia or, according to some, Crete (Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica 1. 1129; Pliny Naturalis historia 7. 197). First mentioned in the Phoronis epic ...
Idas and Lynceus

Idas and Lynceus  

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Prominent figures in early Peloponnesian legend, sons of Aphareus, king of Messenia (though Poseidon is sometimes credited with the paternity of Idas). As the ‘Apharetidae’ they form a Messenian ...
Jason

Jason  

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Religion
In Greek mythology, the son of the king of Iolcos in Thessaly, and leader of the Argonauts in the quest for the Golden Fleece, during which Jason has to perform such tasks as yoking a pair of ...
Latin metre

Latin metre  

A tradition of writing Latin verses on the quantitative model of those of Classical Greek literature maintained itself from 240 bc down to the end of the western empire. The relation of the so‐called ...
literary criticism in antiquity

literary criticism in antiquity  

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1. The arts of formal speech played a big part in ancient life; so it was natural that vocabularies and conceptual frameworks should be developed for the purposes of evaluation, speculation about the ...
literary theory and classical studies

literary theory and classical studies  

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One of the most striking features of 20th-cent. intellectual life has been the attention paid to literary theory, especially from the time of the 1960s. This intellectual ferment has produced ...

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