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anti-Semitism

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Action Française

Action Française  

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Overview Page
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Religion
A French political movement, founded in 1898 at the height of the Dreyfus affair. In 1926 it was condemned by Pius XI on the grounds of extreme nationalism and a cynical misappropriation of Catholic ...
Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler  

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(1889–1945)German chancellor and Nazi leader (1933–45). One of the most powerful and evil leaders in the history of the world, he achieved a following in Germany and his native Austria that enabled ...
Adrienne Rich

Adrienne Rich  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1929–2012),American poet, essayist, and critic, born in Baltimore, graduated from Radcliffe College, and has since held a variety of academic posts. Her characteristic fractured free verse, ...
Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein  

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(1879–1955)German-born physicist, a thinker of astounding insight, author of the special and general theories of relativity, and winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on the ...
Alfred Rosenberg

Alfred Rosenberg  

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(b. 12 Jan. 1893, d. 16 Oct. 1946).Chief Nazi ideologist A refugee of German descent from Estonia, he joined the Nazi Party in 1919 and became editor of the party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter ...
America First Committee

America First Committee  

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An isolationist group organized in September 1940 to fight President Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies. The group conducted its own polls, showing, in contrast to official polls, that the American ...
Anti-Catholic Movement.

Anti-Catholic Movement.  

Inherited from British sectarianism, anti-Catholicism became the core ingredient in the American nativist movement. Like English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish Protestants, many Anglo-Americans ...
Anti-Defamation League

Anti-Defamation League  

(ADL).Founded in 1913 by the Chicago Lawyer Sigmund Livingston with the sponsorship of the Jewish service organization B'nai B'rith “to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to ...
Arier

Arier  

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Literature
Denotes originally a member of the Indo-Iranian group of peoples which included the Medes, Persians, and Indians. In ancient Mesopotamia they constituted a ruling class. The word is also used ...
Arthur Schnitzler

Arthur Schnitzler  

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(1862–1931)Austrian dramatist and novelist. His first play, Anatol (written 1889–92), describes a bourgeois youth like himself who drifts through endless, superficial pleasures. In 1891 he ...
Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary  

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History
The ‘Dual Monarchy’, established by the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph after Austria's defeat by Prussia in 1866 in which Austria and Hungary became autonomous states under a common sovereign. The ...
authoritarian personality

authoritarian personality  

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Title of 1940s study by Berkeley researchers into the psychological origins of anti‐Semitism. The term was used to refer to an ‘ethnocentric’ personality pattern characterized by traits such as ...
badge, Jewish

badge, Jewish  

Concern to segregate Christendom’s Jewish minority intensified over the MA. The most demeaning technique was to require distinguishing external garb to identify Jews as ‘different’. Such a demand was ...
Barabbas

Barabbas  

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Religion
The prisoner released by Pilate to the crowd instead of Jesus. In allusive terms Barabbas's name is used to convey the sense of evil being chosen over good.
Béla Kun

Béla Kun  

(b. 20 Feb. 1886, d. 1941).Hungarian Communist dictator 1919Born in Cehu Silvaniei, he graduated as a lawyer from Kolozsvar before World War I. As prisoner of war (1916–18) in Russia he became a ...
Bernard Lazare

Bernard Lazare  

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Literature
(1865–1903), French writer and journalist.He is best known for his decisive role, along with Zola, in the appeal of the Dreyfus case and for his pioneering studies of anti-Semitism. ...
Black Muslims

Black Muslims  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Members of an African American nationalist religious movement. It was founded in Detroit in the 1930s by Wallace D. Fard (sometimes Ford, later known as Wali Farad). He was known ...
blood Libel

blood Libel  

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Overview Page
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Religion
The accusation that Jews murder non-Jews to obtain blood for Passover rituals. This accusation was repeated in many places in the Middle Ages and was the cause of anti-Jewish riots ...
blood of Christ

blood of Christ  

The blood struck from Christ’s side by a lance (John 19:34) was central to patristic and medieval theologies of redemption. Conflated with the blood referred to by Christ in instituting ...
Bruno Frank

Bruno Frank  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(b. Stuttgart, Germany, 13 June 1887, d. Beverly Hills, Calif., 20 June 1945)Writer who emigrated from his native Germany to America in 1933. In contrast to his early expressionism ...

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