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Alzheimer's disease

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acetylcholine

acetylcholine  

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(ass-i-tyl-koh-leen)the acetic acid ester of the organic base choline: the neurotransmitter released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions. See also cholinesterase.
advance directives

advance directives  

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Syn: living will. A formal written statement setting out a person's wishes in the event of incapacitating illness such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease. Advance directives may include information such ...
aluminium

aluminium  

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A silvery white metallic element. It is used as a filter in x-ray machines to block x-rays over a certain wavelength. It is also added to some dental waxes to modify the hardening properties. ...
amyloid

amyloid  

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n. a glycoprotein, resembling starch, that is deposited in the internal organs in amyloidosis. β-amyloid protein has been found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients but the significance of this is ...
amyloid plaque

amyloid plaque  

A deposit of insoluble beta-amyloid protein (BAP) occurring in the brains of most people over 70 years old, causing degeneration of neurons, and found abundantly in people with Alzheimer's disease, ...
apolipoprotein E

apolipoprotein E  

An apolipoprotein found in all plasma liproteins that mediates their binding, internalization, and catabolism. ApoE is a ligand for the LDL (ApoB/E) receptor and for the specific ApoE receptor. ...
beta-amyloid

beta-amyloid  

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A fragment of amyloid precursor protein (amyloid B, 39–43 aa) produced by the action of secretases (see presenilins) and the main component of plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease.
Clock Drawing Test

Clock Drawing Test  

A quick and easy test of visuospatial ability, often used as a screening test for Alzheimer's disease or dementia. The respondent is asked to draw a traditional (analogue) clock face with all the ...
cortical Lewy body disease

cortical Lewy body disease  

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A disorder characterized by a combination of parkinsonism and dementia, which typically fluctuates. Visual hallucinations are common, and there is exquisite sensitivity to phenothiazine drugs. ...
dementia

dementia  

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A chronic or persistent disorder of behaviour due to organic brain disease. It is characterized by a decrease in intellectual function with changes in personality, mood, and behaviour. Presenile ...
disease

disease  

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Any illness or abnormal condition of the body with a specific cause (which may or may not be known), excluding physical trauma, that has recognizable signs and symptoms.
Down syndrome

Down syndrome  

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A congenital form of mental retardation due to a chromosome defect in which there are three copies of chromosome no. 21 instead of the usual two (see trisomy). The affected individual has a short ...
excitotoxin

excitotoxin  

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A substance that causes damage to neurons by inducing overactivity. The excitatory amino acids can act as excitotoxins and will produce brain lesions similar to those of Huntington's disease or ...
genetics of mental illness

genetics of mental illness  

The belief that some aspects of human behaviour are innately determined is an ancient one. For example, Plato postulated that humans were born with certain kinds of knowledge carried in ...
glycated proteins

glycated proteins  

Glycation is the post‐translational modification of a protein by the covalent attachment of a sugar residue, resulting from the spontaneous amino–carbonyl reaction (the Maillard reaction) between ...
long-term care

long-term care  

Medical, nursing, and social care of dependent persons over a prolonged period that may be provided by a multidisciplinary team or an individual caregiver, either in the dependent person's home or, ...
mild cognitive impairment

mild cognitive impairment  

A condition characterized by slight amnesia without dementia or other forms of cognitive impairment, often a precursor of Alzheimer's disease. It may be diagnosed in a patient who complains of memory ...
Mini-Mental State Examination

Mini-Mental State Examination  

A brief, easily administered, and simply scored psychological test designed to screen for mental impairment, especially in the elderly, first published by the US psychiatrists Marshal F(rank) ...
mitochondrial-DNA

mitochondrial-DNA  

Circular DNA that is found in mitochondria. It is entirely independent of nuclear DNA and, with very few exceptions, is transmitted from females to their offspring with no contribution from the male ...
neuritic plaque

neuritic plaque  

An extracellular mass of β‐amyloid filaments that is associated with dystrophic axons and dendrites, microglia, and astrocytes. In Alzheimer's disease such plaques occur in areas of the brain that ...

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