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alchemy

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alkahest

alkahest  

The hypothetical universal solvent sought by alchemists. Recorded from the mid 17th century, the word is sham Arabic, and was probably invented by Paracelsus.
analytical chemistry

analytical chemistry  

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The branch of chemistry concerned with analysing materials by chemical (or physical) methods.
Antonio Guaineri

Antonio Guaineri  

(1380s? d. after 1455) Pavian citizen, court physician, and university professor whose writings emphasize practice over theory and bear witness to contemporary social conditions.He studied at Padua ...
Arnau de Villanova

Arnau de Villanova  

(c.1240–1311) Medieval physician, university teacher, and spiritual reformer.His early biography is poorly known, but he was certainly born in the Crown of Aragon. He earned his medical degree at ...
Arnold of Villanova

Arnold of Villanova  

(c.1240–1311)His date and place of birth are unknown, but Arnaldus de Villa Nova called himself a Catalan and from boyhood he lived at Valencia, in the territories recently reconquered ...
astrology

astrology  

The study of movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world. Ancient observers of the heavens developed elaborate ...
Canon

Canon  

Rule (L., from Greek kanon). A common name (sing. or pl.) for a scientific text embodying a series of procedural rules. The Pardoner's remark that ‘Avycen wrote never in no ...
Canon Yeoman's Prologue and Tale

Canon Yeoman's Prologue and Tale  

Follow The Second Nun's Tale (to which it is linked) to form the final part of Fragment VIII of The Canterbury Tales. Prologue and Tale together amount to just over ...
Chʾang-sheng Pu-ssu

Chʾang-sheng Pu-ssu  

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Religion
(Chin., ‘long-lasting’, ‘immortal’).The goal of Taoism in many of its practices. Initially, Taoism was concerned with literal and physical immortality (see ALCHEMY), which involved the quest for ...
chemistry

chemistry  

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The study of the elements and the compounds they form. Chemistry is mainly concerned with effects that depend on the outer electrons in atoms. See biochemistry; geochemistry; inorganic chemistry; ...
Ch'en Tʾuan

Ch'en Tʾuan  

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Religion
(10th cent. ce).Taoist scholar of both outer and inner alchemy, who lived on Mount Hua-shan as a hermit. On the face of the rock he carved the diagram of ...
chi

chi  

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Religion
(Chinese, breath, vital spirit, force)The vital force, in particular as it is expressed in the combination of passive and active principles (yin and yang). In some Chinese philosophy chi plays ...
Chin-tan

Chin-tan  

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Religion
(Chin., ‘golden cinnabar’).The elixir of immortality in Taoist alchemy.
Chʾüan-chen tao

Chʾüan-chen tao  

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Religion
(Chin., ‘way of realizing truth’).A major form of religious Taoism also known as Pure Yang (chung-yang) and Golden Lotus (chin-lien). The school was founded by Wang Chʾun-yang (1112–70 ce). ...
Dame Frances Amelia Yates

Dame Frances Amelia Yates  

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Literature
(1899–1981) British cultural historianGiordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (1964) Non-FictionThe Rosicrucian Enlightenment (1972) Non-FictionThe Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (1979) ...
Democritus

Democritus  

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B. 460–457 bc,40 years after Anaxagoras acc. to his own statement quoted by Diogenes (4) Laertius. He travelled widely, acc. to various later accounts, and lived to a great age. In time he became ...
distillation, medical

distillation, medical  

The process of preparing liquid medicines by condensing the gas of an evaporated liquid in an alembic. Distillation was employed to produce both alcohol and non-alcoholic liquids. Medieval Europe ...
Dragon

Dragon  

1 the Dragon, whose head and tail mark the lunar nodes, the points of intersection of the Moon's path with the ecliptic. In Equatorie of the Planetis the Latin is ...
dyeing

dyeing  

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History
Was a well‐established urban professional craft in the classical world and a branch of empirical chemistry, as the surviving Graeco‐Roman dye recipe‐books reveal. Wool was dyed ‘in the fleece’ before ...
Elf-queene

Elf-queene  

In Sir Thopas (VII.788, 795) a creature of magical beauty whom the hero hopes to make his mistress; the ‘queene of Fayerye’ mentioned a few lines later seems to be ...

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