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Arles

Arles  

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Religion
Among the more important were those of: 314, summoned by Constantine to deal with the Donatist schism; 353, an Arianizing Council; 1234, against the Albigensian heresy; and 1263, which condemned the ...
Avignon

Avignon  

A city on the Rhône in SE France, which from 1309 until 1377 the residence of the popes during their exile from Rome and was papal property until the French Revolution.
Cathari

Cathari  

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Religion
(Gk. καθαρός, ‘pure’).The name has been applied to several sects, e.g. to the Novatianists by St Epiphanius and other Greek Fathers, and, acc. to St Augustine, in the form ...
Cathars

Cathars  

A member of a heretical medieval Christian sect which professed a form of Manichaean dualism and sought to achieve great spiritual purity. The name is recorded in English from the mid 17th century, ...
Innocent III

Innocent III  

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Religion
(1160/61–1216), Pope from 1198. In making the right of the Papacy to interfere in secular affairs depend upon its duty to control the moral conduct of rulers and upon the theory of Papal feudal ...
Inquisition

Inquisition  

An ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX c.1232 for the suppression of heresy, at a time when certain heretical groups were regarded by the Church as enemies of society. It was ...
Lateran Basilica

Lateran Basilica  

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Religion
The basilica, dedicated to St John the Baptist (with whom St John the Apostle is now associated), stands on the site of a palace which belonged to the family of the Laterani. The palace, given to the ...
Lateran Councils

Lateran Councils  

A series of councils held at the Lateran Palace in Rome from the 7th to the 18th cent.; five of them rank as oecumenical in the W. Church. The First (1123) ratified the Concordat of Worms ending the ...
Louis VIII

Louis VIII  

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(1187–1226)King of France (1223–1226), son of Philip Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut; he married Blanche of Castile in May 1200. Associated in the government, though not consecrated in his ...
Mani

Mani  

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Religion
There are contradictions among the sources, but it appears that Mani (c.216–76) was born near Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, and began teaching in 240. Opposition from the ...
Peter Nolasco

Peter Nolasco  

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Religion
(c.1182–1256),founder of the Mercedarian Order. Much uncertainty surrounds the details of his life owing to legends and spurious documents. He was born in Barcelona of a merchant family. He became ...
rosary

rosary  

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Religion
Arabic misbahah; tasbih; subhah. String of thirty-three beads used by Muslims since the ninth century to count repetition of prayers and recite the names of God. Probably adapted from similar devices ...
St Dominic

St Dominic  

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Religion
(1170–1221).Founder of the Dominicans. Born in Old Castile, he became a canon regular in Osma. With his bishop, Diego d'Azevedo, he initiated a new style of evangelization in Languedoc ...

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