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Abraham IbnEzra

Abraham IbnEzra  

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Religion
(c.1089–1164).Jewish philosopher, poet, and biblical commentator. He wrote both secular and religious poetry, commentaries on all the books of the Bible (those to the early prophets, Chronicles, ...
Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur

Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur  

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(c. 1160–1199), Almohad caliph.Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (“the Victorious”) became Almohad caliph in 1184 after his father’s death. His ambition to expand his Andalusian kingdom was thwarted by the ...
al- Mansur

al- Mansur  

[Arabic, ‘the victorious’] The title taken by Muhammad ibn Abi Amir (938–1002), a gifted, ruthless politician who took al-Andalus to the apogee of its power but undermined the Umayyad dynasty.[...]
Algarve

Algarve  

Southernmost region of present-day Portugal, stretching from the mouth of the Guadiana river in the east to Cape St Vincent in the west. Its history reaches back to antiquity. Its ...
aljama

aljama  

Derived from the Arabic al-jamaa, meaning ‘the gathering’ or ‘the assembly’, the term aljama denotes a self-governing Jewish or Muslim community in the medieval Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus). It has ...
Andalusia

Andalusia  

Southernmost province of modern Spain whose name derives from the Arabic term for the Iberian Peninsula, much of which was under Arab-Islamic rule between 711 and 1492. This rule extended ...
Arabic medicine in the Latin West

Arabic medicine in the Latin West  

Medical texts had been written in Arabic in the Islamic world by Christian, Jewish, and Muslim doctors from the late 8th century onwards. The earliest translations of these medical works ...
Arabs

Arabs  

Ancient tribes and peoples who lived in, and around the modern Arabian peninsula. Herodotus was acquainted with the Arabs of southern Palestine and the Sinai, and mentions the Arabs of the incense ...
art and architecture: Almoravid

art and architecture: Almoravid  

The Almoravids (al-Murabitun in Arabic) ruled Morocco and al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) between c.1062 and 1150. Due to the Almoravids’ adherence to the conservative Malikite school of Islamic law, their ...
barrels

barrels  

Wooden containers made with staves of oak and beech and with hoops made of hazelnut or chestnut. Coopers fabricated barrels by bending the staves while heating them by a wood ...
Battle of Guadalete

Battle of Guadalete  

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The battle of Guadalete, fought in southern Spain most likely in the year 711, witnessed the decisive defeat of the Visigothic forces by Muslim invaders. This brief statement is uncontroversial ...
Battle of Zallaqah

Battle of Zallaqah  

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At the battle of Zallaqah ( 23 October 1086; alternate spellings Zalaca, Zallaqa, Zallaka; also known as the battle of Sagrajas), an Almoravid army led by the emir Yusuf ibn ...
Burgos

Burgos  

Located on the banks of the Arlanzón river (Castile), the city began as a military outpost in the 880s. Strategically placed, its castle kept a watch for Muslim raids. By ...
Caliphate of Córdoba

Caliphate of Córdoba  

Umayyad and Ḥammūdid DynastiesLévi-Provençal, E., Histoire de l'Espagne musulmane (3 vols., Paris, 1950–67).Scales, P. C., The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba (Leiden, 1994).756–788‛Abd al-Raḥmān I ...
Castile

Castile  

A region of central Spain, on the central plateau of the Iberian peninsula, formerly an independent Spanish kingdom. The marriage of Isabella of Castile to Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 linked these ...
Charles Martel

Charles Martel  

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(c. 688–741)(French, martel, ‘hammer’) Frankish leader. He was the son of Pepin II, ‘mayor of the palace’ under Merovingian rule. He gained control of the Austrasian province and defeated the ...
concejo

concejo  

[Latin, concilium] An Iberian municipal council that governed the town and its outlying district. The concejo developed from early frontier settlement charters, called cartas pueblas, which ...
Córdoba

Córdoba  

A city in Andalusia, southern Spain. Founded by the Carthaginians, it was under Moorish rule from 711 to 1236, and as capital of the most powerful of the Arab states in Spain, it was a centre of ...
Córdoba martyrs

Córdoba martyrs  

A brief enthusiasm for voluntary martyrdom flourished in 9th-century Córdoba in response to the spread of Arab language and culture among Christians. The Córdoban priest Eulogius (d. 859) describes ...
courtiers, Jewish

courtiers, Jewish  

Under both Islam and Christendom, Jewish courtiers in Iberia were anything but subordinate. In no other region in the medieval world did Jews occupy such high political, administrative, and financial ...

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