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African Americans

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A. Philip Randolph

A. Philip Randolph  

(1889–1979), union head and civil rights leader.A socialist, Asa Philip Randolph saw economic empowerment as the key to African-American advancement, a philosophy he espoused in his Messenger ...
affirmative action

affirmative action  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
Any form of positive discrimination taken to assist or promote members of disadvantaged groups, e.g. under Affirmative Action (Equal Employment Opportunity for Women) Act 1986 (Cth). See ...
African American Religion.

African American Religion.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The religious beliefs of so large and diverse a population cannot be unified into a single, artificial scheme. The African dispersion has now mingled with many other sources, and black ...
African Diaspora

African Diaspora  

[This entry contains two subentries dealing with the African diaspora, from the origins of slave trade through nineteenth-century America. The first article focuses on the evolution and criticism of ...
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions  

Founded in 1810 by Congregational ministers from Massachusetts during the Second Great Awakening to send missionaries both abroad and to the southern and western United States—to convert Native ...
An American Dilemma

An American Dilemma  

(1944).Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy ranks among the most important studies of American race relations. The “American Negro Problem,” Myrdal argued, lay ...
antislavery

antislavery  

Slavery was regarded in later 18th‐cent. Britain as essential to the exploitation of the West Indian colonies and there was strong opposition to any interference with the institution, particularly ...
Asian Americans

Asian Americans  

[This entry contains seven subentries: Overview; Practice Interventions; Chinese; Japanese, Koreans; South Asians; Southeast Asians.]The term Asian Americans encompasses the immigrants coming from ...
baseball

baseball  

The fascination of early-twenty-first-century baseball fans with Alex Rodríguez, Sammy Sosa, and Nomar Garciaparra and with Hispanic ballplayers as a whole belies a longer history of participation in ...
Black Abolitionists

Black Abolitionists  

Historians acknowledge the existence of “two abolitionisms” in the antebellum United States—one black, one white. Although black and white abolitionists shared similar views about the moral evil of ...
Black Nationalism

Black Nationalism  

An important ideology in African American history, black nationalism is grounded in the belief that efforts to operate within a political system deemed racist and unresponsive to black needs are ...
Black Panthers

Black Panthers  

The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (later simply the Black Panther Party) was born in Oakland, California, on 15 October 1966, and was a radical anti-oppression organization that became ...
blues

blues  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Music
Slow jazz song of lamentation, generally for an unhappy love affair. Usually in groups of 12 bars, instead of 8 or 16, each stanza being 3 lines covering 4 bars of music. Tonality predominantly ...
Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan  

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Music
(1941– ),adopted name of American singer‐songwriter Robert Allen Zimmerman, whose lyrics have been highly praised both by poets and by some academics.
Booker T. Washington

Booker T. Washington  

(1856–1915)US educationist. An emancipated slave, he pursued a career in teaching and was appointed head in 1881 of the newly founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama for the training of Black teachers. ...
boxing

boxing  

Developed from uncontrolled encounters, in which wrestling, kicking, gouging, biting, hair‐pulling, and kicking opponents when down were practised. Early prize fights went on until one of the ...
Brownsville raid

Brownsville raid  

An acrimonious civilian-military conflict reached into the halls of Congress and the White House when residents of Brownsville, Texas, accused the all-black First Battalion, Twenty-fifth Infantry, of ...
Buffalo Soldiers

Buffalo Soldiers  

The first black regiments in the regular army, established by Congress on July 1866. Originally the 9th and 10th Calvary and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments, in ...
Charles Richard Drew

Charles Richard Drew  

(1904–1950), pioneering blood plasma scientist, surgeon, teacher.Born in Washington, D.C., Charles Drew graduated from McGill University Medical School in Montreal in 1933, ranking second in a class ...
Civil Rights Acts

Civil Rights Acts  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1866, 1875, 1957, 1964)Legislation aimed at extending the legal and civil rights of the US Black population. The first Civil Rights Act of 1866 reversed the doctrine laid down by the Dred Scott ...

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