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Afghanistan

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ʿAbd Allāh Yūsuf ʿAzzām

ʿAbd Allāh Yūsuf ʿAzzām  

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Religion
ʿAbd Allāh Yūsuf ʿAzzām (1941–1989)was a Muslim thinker and militant who popularized the theory and practice of international jihād as an armed struggle incumbent upon every Muslim.Life.Born in ...
Afghanistan War

Afghanistan War  

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(1979–1989)Following a military coup in April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power. The party was riven by sectarian disputes and, in December 1979, the Soviet ...
Anglo-Afghan Wars

Anglo-Afghan Wars  

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A series of wars between Afghan rulers and British India. The first occurred (1838–42) when Britain, concerned about Russian influence in Afghanistan, sent an army to replace Dost Muhammad with a ...
Central Asia

Central Asia  

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Landlocked region of the Asian land mass. Largely through its location, topography and hydrology, it has served for millennia as the carrier of human communications between the societies and ...
containment

containment  

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First articulated by President Truman in 1947, containment involved maintaining the US military presence around the world, as well as supporting ‘friendly’ regimes economically and militarily. It was ...
Diaspora and Exile

Diaspora and Exile  

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Religion
The terms diaspora and exile are sometimes used interchangeably to refer to people forced to leave traditional homelands or otherwise violently dispersed. Diaspora was used by Greeks to refer to ...
Durrani Dynasty

Durrani Dynasty  

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Religion
Afghani dynasty. In the conflicts following the death of the Iranian ruler Nadir Shah in 1747, a former commander in his army, Ahmad Khan Abdali, emerged as the ruler of much of Afghanistan. He ...
economic sanctions

economic sanctions  

Action taken by one country or group of countries to harm the economic interest of another country or group of countries, usually to bring about pressure for social or political change. Sanctions ...
Ghazna

Ghazna  

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In the tenth century C.E., before the rise of an independent sultanate based in Ghazna (south-southwest of Kabul in Afghanistan), the town of Ghazna and surrounding province of Zabulistan were ...
Great Game

Great Game  

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One of the more remarkable aspects of the British Empire was its inherent fragility. Throughout the nineteenth century, British politicians, soldiers, and diplomats feared the intervention of a ...
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar  

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Religion
(b. ca. 1947)Leader of the Hizb-i Islami and prime minister of Afghanistan in the post-Soviet government. As a political leader during the 1978–92 war against the Marxist government, he was respected ...
Ḥizb-i Islāmī Afghānistān

Ḥizb-i Islāmī Afghānistān  

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Religion
Afghan political movement created and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Maulavi Yunus Khales. Active in the Afghan war, 1978–92. Broken into factions. Ideology combines scriptural fundamentalism with ...
Hizb-i Wahdat

Hizb-i Wahdat  

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Religion
Afghani Shii Islamist political party created in 1990 by Shaykh Ali Mazari. Initially supported a radical and ideological position but shifted to a policy emphasizing ethnicity during the Afghan ...
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan  

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Religion
Begun in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union and organized as the IMU by Tahir Yuldeshev in 1998. Seeks to establish a government based on shariah. Based in Uzbekistan but has branches in ...
Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter  

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1924– )US Democratic statesman and thirty-ninth president of the USA (1977–81).Carter was born in Plains, Georgia, the son of a peanut farmer and warehouser. Having graduated from the US Naval ...
Kabul

Kabul  

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Capital of Afghanistan. With its excellent location on the Kabul River in a fertile plain surrounded by mountains and hills, Kabul is a natural strategic site and has a history ...
loya Jirga

loya Jirga  

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Religion
Traditional tribal councils of Afghanistan.
mud

mud  

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Apparently an unpromising material, but with a long and honourable history in vernacular architecture, not only for simple structures but also for monumental public buildings, such as the Mosque, ...
Mullah Omar

Mullah Omar  

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Religion
Mohammad Omar (b. c. 1959),also known as Mullah Omar, is the spiritual and political leader of the Sunnī fundamentalist Taliban movement of Afghanistan. Omar was Afghanistan's de facto head of ...
Osama Bin Laden

Osama Bin Laden  

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Religion
(1957–2011)Leader and founder of the al-Qaeda terrorist network. Born in Saudi Arabia, he inherited a fortune from his father's construction business, which he has used to further his militant ...

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