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Adrian IV

(c. 1100—1159) pope

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Alexander III

Alexander III  

(d. 1181), Pope from 1159. After his election, an antipope (Victor IV) was immediately set up and supported by the Emp. Frederick I. During the 17-year schism, Alexander lived mainly in France. Here ...
Arnold of Brescia

Arnold of Brescia  

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(d. 1155), reformer. A canon regular, c.1139 he had to leave Brescia after taking part in a conflict between the bishop and reformers. In France he supported Peter Abelard and at the Council of Sens ...
Celestine III

Celestine III  

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(c.1106–98), Pope from 1191. He defended Abelard at the Council of Sens (1140) and later urged Thomas Becket to adopt a less intransigent attitude. Elected Pope in his 85th year, his reign was marked ...
Frederick I

Frederick I  

(c. 1123–90)King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. He was drowned ...
John of Salisbury

John of Salisbury  

(1115/20–1180)English churchman and diplomat. A student of Abelard, John was one of the most learned of early medieval writers on moral and political matters. He was secretary to Theobald, archbishop ...
Nidaros

Nidaros  

The main spiritual centre of Norway in the Middle Ages, Nidaros (now Trondheim) was founded, according to the tradition related in the Royal sagas (early 13th c.), by King Óláfr ...
Orvieto

Orvieto  

An Etruscan town in Umbria built on an isolated volcanic rock 640ft above the surrounding plain, Orvieto was nearly impregnable. The city prospered under Roman rule, and after the collapse ...

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